Neural Crest


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Neural crest

A strip of ectodermal material in the early vertebrate embryo inserted between the prospective neural plate and epidermis. After closure of the neural tube the crest cells migrate into the body and give rise to parts of the neural system: the main part of the visceral cranium, the mesenchyme, the chromaffin cells, and pigment cells. The true nature of the neural crest eluded recognition for many years because this primary organ has a temporary existence; its cells and derivatives are difficult to analyze when dispersed throughout the body. The fact that mesenchyme arises from this ectodermal organ was directly contrary to the doctrine of the specificity of the germ layers.

Neural crest no doubt exists, with similar qualities, in all vertebrate groups, including the cyclostomes. It has been most thoroughly studied in amphibians and the chick. See Germ layers

Neural Crest

 

the fold of ectoderm that borders the neural, or medullary, plate during neurulation in chordates and man. The cells of the neural crest become distributed over the neural tube after neurulation, forming the ganglionic primordia. The neural crest gives rise to the spinal and sympathetic ganglia, the visceral skeleton, the pigment cells, and the connective tissue layer of the skin.

neural crest

[′nu̇r·əl ′krest]
(embryology)
Ectoderm composing the primordium of the cranial, spinal, and autonomic ganglia and adrenal medulla, located on either side of the neural tube.
References in periodicals archive ?
In our study we developed a retinoic acid induced, neural crest defective model of chick thymus.
The genes are likely to be expressed when cells differentiate into neural crest lineages, such as neurons or Schwann cells, thereby enabling researchers to study the disease in a dish.
Neural crest cells retain multipotential characteristics in the developing valves and label the cardiac conduction system.
Like locusts that cringe away from nipping neighbors, neural crest cells repel each other, thanks to a process known as "contact inhibition of locomotion," Mayor and colleagues found.
Similarly, it has been observed that the direct application of Nog regulates the BMPs in chondrogenesis, deducing that the activity of these proteins is increased when the antagonists decrease, and this increase reduces the expression of FGF-8 leading to improper migration of neural crest cells of the first gill arch, causing stunt growth of the bones of the upper and lower jaws.
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a group of rare genetic disorder of neural crest derived cells designated as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1), neurofibromatosis type 2 and schwannomatosis.
Neural crest transcription factor Sox10 is preferentially expressed in triple-negative and metaplastic breast carcinomas.
In vertebrates, neural crest cells that contribute to pigment cells are also derived from the neural plate border.
1) The embryological derivation of these Schwann cells is during the fourth week of development from a specialized population of ectomesenchymal cells of the neural crest.