Neural Crest

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Neural crest

A strip of ectodermal material in the early vertebrate embryo inserted between the prospective neural plate and epidermis. After closure of the neural tube the crest cells migrate into the body and give rise to parts of the neural system: the main part of the visceral cranium, the mesenchyme, the chromaffin cells, and pigment cells. The true nature of the neural crest eluded recognition for many years because this primary organ has a temporary existence; its cells and derivatives are difficult to analyze when dispersed throughout the body. The fact that mesenchyme arises from this ectodermal organ was directly contrary to the doctrine of the specificity of the germ layers.

Neural crest no doubt exists, with similar qualities, in all vertebrate groups, including the cyclostomes. It has been most thoroughly studied in amphibians and the chick. See Germ layers

Neural Crest

 

the fold of ectoderm that borders the neural, or medullary, plate during neurulation in chordates and man. The cells of the neural crest become distributed over the neural tube after neurulation, forming the ganglionic primordia. The neural crest gives rise to the spinal and sympathetic ganglia, the visceral skeleton, the pigment cells, and the connective tissue layer of the skin.

neural crest

[′nu̇r·əl ′krest]
(embryology)
Ectoderm composing the primordium of the cranial, spinal, and autonomic ganglia and adrenal medulla, located on either side of the neural tube.
References in periodicals archive ?
The cranial neural crest cells develop into many important structures of the head and face, and 90 percent of the gingival stem cells were found to be N-GMSC.
Craniofacial birth defects: the role of neural crest cells in the etiology and pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome and the potential for prevention.
Neural crest cells also give rise to ocular and auditory structures.
This soft tissue neoplasm is thought to derive from neural crest cells.
Knowing how neural crest cells direct facial development could one day help scientists prevent human facial defects like cleft palate.
Neural crest cells play an important role in embryonic development as they differentiate into components of the central and peripheral nervous systems, vascular system, and muscle tissue.
In chick embryos, alcohol exposure before the cranial neural crest cells begin to migrate results in excessive cell death of these cells during the period of migration, leading to abnormal facial features modeling effects in humans with FAS (Cartwright et al.
The molecular markers of these lines are consistent with two types of human neural crest cells that have promise for the treatment of numerous diseases such as cranial-facial disorders involving certain tissues of the face, dentition, and neck, and disorders of the peripheral nervous system.
In July, three scientists proposed that certain physical features shared by domestic animals, described as domestication syndrome, might all result from mild defects in the function of cells known as neural crest cells (SN: 8/23/14, p.
Muscle formation in the target stem cells occurred only when the NOTCH pathway was triggered briefly by the migrating neural crest cells.
Among the topics are effective cleft lip surgery, growth of the dentofacial complex in the presence of cleft lip and palate, repairing alveolar clefts by bone grafting, cleft speech-assessment and management, genetics and embryogenesis, neural crest cells in development of CL/P, genetic analysis of CL/P at the present and its prospects for the future, the preventive effect of folic acid and other vitamins on congenital anomalies, and methods for dietary surveys aimed to prevent CL/P.
retinoids and valproic acid) affecting gene/gene, gene/receptor, gene/modifier, and gene/teratogen interactions that lead in neural tube or other structural defects; 13) Examination of the role and developmental biology of neural crest cells in normal embryonic development and how defects in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and patterning may result in major structural birth defects; 14) Elucidation of the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms that alter normal developmental processes in drug-induced (e.