Neuroblasts


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Neuroblasts

 

embryonic nerve cells that are converted to mature nerve cells, or neurons, during the course of development. In contrast to neurons, neuroblasts partially retain the capacity to divide. In mammals maturation of neuroblasts is completed shortly after birth. For this reason, no new neurons are formed during the subsequent life of the organism. Neuroblastomas are tumors that can arise during the malignant degeneration of neuroblasts.

References in periodicals archive ?
littoralis on adult neurogenesis in the DG of the adult mouse hippocampus using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, an indicator for cell proliferation) labeling and immunohistochemistry for doublecortin (DCX, an immature neuronal marker), which has been commonly used to investigate the proliferation of neuroblast.
Histologically, ganglioneuroblastoma is composed of neuroblasts (undifferentiated precursor cells) and ganglion (differentiated mature cells), as observed in this case, and the presence of these cell types is a diagnostic criterion for ganglioneuroblastoma (MATTIX et al.
Astrocytes seem to contribute to neuroblast migration to striatum after stroke by releasing stroma-derived factor-1a (SDF-1) [63, 64] and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) [63].
Synaptophysin reactivity was seen in 100% of cases, CD57 staining was seen in 91% of cases, and posttreatment neuroblasts and ganglion cells showed PHOX2B reactivity in 94% of cases.
The neuroblastoma metastatic-cell model, IGR-N-91, was derived from a high-risk neuroblastoma through in vitro culture of malignant neuroblasts that had been collected from the bone marrow of an 8-year-old boy and then xenografted into nude mice, as has been described (20).
Neuroblastoma starts in young nerve cells, called neuroblasts, which control automatic functions, such as the heart beat and blood pressure, and how a child's body reacts to stress.
Dynamic imaging reveals that brain-derived neurotrophic factor can independently regulate motility and direction of neuroblasts within the rostral migratory stream.
These influences on hippocampal plasticity are mediated by the modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor complex A (GABA(A)) receptors present on hippocampal neuroblasts.
Histologically these tumors are composed of mature or immature ganglion cells, neurites accompanied by schwann cells and fibrous tissue but without presence of immature elements, such as neuroblasts and mitotic figures, (3, 8-9) Georger et al, however, state that metabolic activity and even development of metastases do not exclude the diagnosis of a benign ganglioneuroma.
More sophisticated and less destructive methods were slowly developed and in 1942, Carlson studied embryonic neuroblasts of Chortophaga (Carlson 1942), perforating living cells with a microneedle to manipulate the spindle and associated chromosomes; he determined that the latter were mechanically attached to the spindle, which was a semisolid longitudinal structure, through their kinetochores from prophase through late anaphase.
Subventricular zone (SVZ) GFAP-expressing cells labeled by a cell-type-specific viral infection method were found to generate neuroblasts that migrated toward the injured striatum after middle cerebral artery occlusion.