highlighted entrapped axons within the tumor, confirming the infiltrating nature of the tumor (Figure 2, F).
In response to serum starvation or treatment with retinoic acid (RA) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, N2a cells undergo neuronal differentiation characterized by cell cycle arrest, neurite outgrowth, and up-regulation of neurofilament
(NF) proteins (Dasgupta and Milbrandt 2007).
Methods: Different neuroanatomical areas including frontal cortex (FC), cerebellum (CB), caudate nucleus (CD) and substantia nigra (SN) from autopsy human brains (n=9) with varying PMI (4-18 h) were analyzed for pH, protein insolubility, protein oxidation/nitration and protein expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synatophysin and neurofilament
Lewy bodies are rounded, cosinophilic intracytoplasmic neuronal inclusions composed of altered neurofilaments
The researchers studied genetically engineered mice that make large quantities of a human protein that forms thread-like polymers called neurofilaments
Axonal transport and neurotransmitter release, for example, are now known to occur by mechanisms that are related to those of membrane trafficking and secretion used by all eukaryotic cells, and the neurofilaments
whose unusual staining properties allowed neuroanatomists to trace axonal tracts are now recognized as part of a larger family of intermediate filaments found in many cell types.
are a family of the 10-nm, intermediate filaments found specifically in the axons of neurons.
Al induced tangles are made up of straight l0nm diameter neurofilaments
Associated with this neuronal loss is the presence of large eosinophilic inclusions, called Lewy bodies, within the remaining pigmented neurons, made up of a series of proteins, including neurofilaments
, [alpha]-synuclein fibrils, ubiquitin, parkin, and proteasomal elements.
Immunohistochemical evaluation of the neuromatous component revealed positivity for S-100 protein (figure 2, A), neurofilaments
, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, CD57, and synaptophysin.
Proposed Mechanisms of Lupus Cerebritis Circulating Immune Complexes (DNA, anti-DNA) * vasculitis * disruption of blood brain barrier Anti-neuronal Antibodies * lympho-cytotoxic (LCAs): react with brain tissue * anti-neuronal membrane: directed toward neuronal antigens * intracytoplasmic: target ribosome and neurofilaments
of neuron Antiphospholipid Antibodies * anticardiolipin: cause endothelial damage, platelet aggregation, inflammation and fibrosis * lupus anticoagulant: prolongs coagulation, "antiphospholipid syndrome" Cytokine Release * specifically interferon alfa and interleukin-6 * causes edema * endothelial thickening * infiltration of neutrophils in brain tissue Table 2.
Also, electron microscope studies show A68 to be associated with neurofilaments
in Alzheimer brains.