Neuroimmunology


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Related to Neuroimmunology: psychoneuroimmunology

Neuroimmunology

The study of basic interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems during development, homeostasis, and host defense responses to injury. In its clinical aspects, neuroimmunology focuses on diseases of the nervous system, such as myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis, which are caused by pathogenic autoimmune processes, and on nervous system manifestations of immunological diseases, such as primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. See Autoimmunity, Immunological deficiency

Neuroimmune interactions are dependent on the expression of at least two structural components: immunocytes must display receptors for nervous system-derived mediators, and the mediators must be able to reach immune cells in concentrations sufficient to alter migration, proliferation, phenotype, or secretory or effector functions. More than 20 neuropeptide receptors have been identified on immunocompetent cells.

It has been found that stimuli derived from the nervous system could affect the course of human disease. The onset or progression of tumor growth, infections, or chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, could be associated with traumatic life events or other psychosocial variables such as personality types and coping mechanisms. More direct indications of the influence of psychosocial factors on immune function have been provided by findings that cellular immunity can be impaired in individuals who are exposed to unusually stressful situations, such as the loss of a close relative. See Cellular immunology

During responses to infection, trauma, or malignancies, cells of the immune system produce some cytokines in sufficiently high quantities to reach organs that are distant from the site of production. These cytokines are known to act on the nervous system. Fever is the classic example of changes in nervous system function induced by products of the immune system; interleukin 1, which is produced by monocytes after stimulation by certain bacterial products, binds to receptors in the hypothalamus and evokes changes via the induction of prostaglandins. Interleukin 1 also induces slow-wave sleep. Both fever and sleep may be regarded as protective behavioral changes. See Endocrine system (vertebrate), Immunology, Nervous system (vertebrate), Neurosecretion

References in periodicals archive ?
Zipp, "Monitoring B-cell repopulation after depletion therapy in neurologic patients," Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation, vol.
Wang, "An unusual case of anti-MOG CNS demyelination with concomitant mild anti-NMDAR encephalitis," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Blatti, "Impaired T-cell migration to the CNS under fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate," Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammatuion, vol.
Zheng et al., "IFN-[gamma] deficiency exacerbates experimental autoimmune neuritis in mice despite a mitigated systemic Th1 immune response," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Byline: Neuroimmunology Group of Neurology Branch of Chinese Medical Association, Neuroimmunology Committee of Chinese Society for Immunology, Immunology Society of Chinese Stroke Association.
Key words: major depressive disorder; cytokines; neuroimmunology; China
Hsu et al., "Ectopic and high CXCL13 chemokine expression in myasthenia gravis with thymic lymphoid hyperplasia," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Stebbins et al., "A pilot test of pioglitazone as an add-on in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Killestein et al., "Osteopontin levels and increased disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Wu et al., "Anti-thyroid antibodies and cerebrospinal fluid findings in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Neurologyw Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation, 2016; 3: e236.
Wahls searched all the available articles on multiple sclerosis research and, to enhance her understanding of what she read, began relearning biochemistry, cellular physiology, and neuroimmunology.