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Related to Neuroimmunology: psychoneuroimmunology


The study of basic interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems during development, homeostasis, and host defense responses to injury. In its clinical aspects, neuroimmunology focuses on diseases of the nervous system, such as myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis, which are caused by pathogenic autoimmune processes, and on nervous system manifestations of immunological diseases, such as primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. See Autoimmunity, Immunological deficiency

Neuroimmune interactions are dependent on the expression of at least two structural components: immunocytes must display receptors for nervous system-derived mediators, and the mediators must be able to reach immune cells in concentrations sufficient to alter migration, proliferation, phenotype, or secretory or effector functions. More than 20 neuropeptide receptors have been identified on immunocompetent cells.

It has been found that stimuli derived from the nervous system could affect the course of human disease. The onset or progression of tumor growth, infections, or chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, could be associated with traumatic life events or other psychosocial variables such as personality types and coping mechanisms. More direct indications of the influence of psychosocial factors on immune function have been provided by findings that cellular immunity can be impaired in individuals who are exposed to unusually stressful situations, such as the loss of a close relative. See Cellular immunology

During responses to infection, trauma, or malignancies, cells of the immune system produce some cytokines in sufficiently high quantities to reach organs that are distant from the site of production. These cytokines are known to act on the nervous system. Fever is the classic example of changes in nervous system function induced by products of the immune system; interleukin 1, which is produced by monocytes after stimulation by certain bacterial products, binds to receptors in the hypothalamus and evokes changes via the induction of prostaglandins. Interleukin 1 also induces slow-wave sleep. Both fever and sleep may be regarded as protective behavioral changes. See Endocrine system (vertebrate), Immunology, Nervous system (vertebrate), Neurosecretion

References in periodicals archive ?
But rest assured that it isn't --it's just the emerging science of neuroimmunology.
Consensus recommendations of the Italian Association for Neuroimmunology for immunochemical cerebrospinal fluid examination.
Expertise may involve, but is not limited to, fields such as neurology, cognitive neuroscience (including functional brain imaging), developmental neurobiology, neurotoxicology, neuroendocrinology, pharmacology, psychiatry, neuroimmunology, neurovirology, and biotechnology (e.
Because we know BDNF plays an important role in protecting and healing axonal damage, it is an important finding and may be an additional mechanism of action for COPAXONE(R)," said Tjalf Ziemssen, Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany.
Peter Calabresi, MD , is Professor of Neurology at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore and is Director of the Division of Neuroimmunology as well as Director of the MS Center there.
After moving to the United States to complete a Neuroimmunology fellowship at the Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research (affiliated with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation), he remained on staff and today serves as the Director of Rehabilitation Services.
These findings are an important contribution to the understanding of multiple sclerosis and may offer new targets for a better treatment of the disease, for which at present there is no known cure," said Ralf Linker, who as head of the Neuroimmunology Section and Attending Physician at the Department of Neurology, University Hospital Erlangen, seeks to utilize new laboratory findings for the benefit of patients.
Headquartered in Manhasset, NY, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research is home to international scientific leaders in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, psychiatric disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, sepsis, human genetics, pulmonary hypertension, leukemia, neuroimmunology and medicinal chemistry.
Subsequent chapters deal with immunology of the skin and the pathophysiology of dermatitis, psychological factors, clinical aspects of current genetic findings, concepts of neuroimmunology and itching, inhalant allergy, specific immunologic treatments, occupational aspects, pediatric educational programs, infections and bacterial colonization of the skin, topical and systemic treatments, and the role of food allergy.