Neuroimmunology


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Related to Neuroimmunology: psychoneuroimmunology

Neuroimmunology

The study of basic interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems during development, homeostasis, and host defense responses to injury. In its clinical aspects, neuroimmunology focuses on diseases of the nervous system, such as myasthenia gravis and multiple sclerosis, which are caused by pathogenic autoimmune processes, and on nervous system manifestations of immunological diseases, such as primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. See Autoimmunity, Immunological deficiency

Neuroimmune interactions are dependent on the expression of at least two structural components: immunocytes must display receptors for nervous system-derived mediators, and the mediators must be able to reach immune cells in concentrations sufficient to alter migration, proliferation, phenotype, or secretory or effector functions. More than 20 neuropeptide receptors have been identified on immunocompetent cells.

It has been found that stimuli derived from the nervous system could affect the course of human disease. The onset or progression of tumor growth, infections, or chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, could be associated with traumatic life events or other psychosocial variables such as personality types and coping mechanisms. More direct indications of the influence of psychosocial factors on immune function have been provided by findings that cellular immunity can be impaired in individuals who are exposed to unusually stressful situations, such as the loss of a close relative. See Cellular immunology

During responses to infection, trauma, or malignancies, cells of the immune system produce some cytokines in sufficiently high quantities to reach organs that are distant from the site of production. These cytokines are known to act on the nervous system. Fever is the classic example of changes in nervous system function induced by products of the immune system; interleukin 1, which is produced by monocytes after stimulation by certain bacterial products, binds to receptors in the hypothalamus and evokes changes via the induction of prostaglandins. Interleukin 1 also induces slow-wave sleep. Both fever and sleep may be regarded as protective behavioral changes. See Endocrine system (vertebrate), Immunology, Nervous system (vertebrate), Neurosecretion

References in periodicals archive ?
Clinical Department of Neurology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Centre, Reference Center for Neuroimmunology and Neurogenetics, Reference Center for Neurovascular Disorders, Reference Center for Headaches, Reference Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Pain, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia
Thus, the experts in the communities of neuroimmunology, neuroimaging, and neuropathology formulated the guidelines for the diagnosis and management of the TDLs as a reference for various levels of hospitals in China.
1] Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, [2] Department of Neurology, [3] Division of Neuroimmunology, [4] Institute for Cell Engineering, [5] Hugo Moser Institute at the Kennedy Krieger, [6] The Solomon Snyder Department of Neuroscience, [7] Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; [8] US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, USA; 9University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
Kapoor, "Sleep deprivation and human immune function," Advances in Neuroimmunology, vol.
Brosnan, "MCP-1, MCP-2 and MCP-3 expression in multiple sclerosis lesions: an immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization study," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Bartosz, "Oxidative modification of blood serum proteins in multiple sclerosis after interferon or mitoxantrone treatment," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Leptomeningeal contrast enhancement and blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in aseptic meningitis," Neurology: Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation, vol.
4) Novel investigative techniques such as neuroimmunology and treatments such as remyelination therapies are currently being investigated for MS and broader central nervous system disorders.
Neurology, Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation, 2 (4), 124.
As the new systems medical chief of neuroimmunology and clinical research at OhioHealth, he has the opportunity to build and develop a comprehensive interdisciplinary practice center--from his standpoint, a dream job.
Johanne Kaplan, vice president, Neuroimmunology Research, Genzyme, said, "We look forward to collaborating with Ablynx to evaluate the potential of Nanobodies against this CNS target, as this project supports our research that includes the exploration of novel therapeutic platforms to address unmet needs in multiple sclerosis.
He completed his residency and neuroimmunology fellowship at St.