Neuropathy


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neuropathy

[nu̇′räp·ə·thē]
(medicine)
Any disease affecting neurons.

Neuropathy

 

a functional weakness of the nervous system accompanied by a decrease in the absolute threshold (also called the stimulus, or sensitivity, threshold); the condition is frequently congenital.

Neuropathy arises as a disturbance in the function of the autonomic nervous system owing to deleterious influences on the fetus as a whole (for example, infection in the pregnant mother, trauma, or poisoning) or on the individual embryonic cells (as occurs when the parents suffer from alcoholism). Family circumstances, upbringing, and illnesses suffered by the infant play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropathy. The symptoms usually emerge in childhood or adolescence. When neuropathy occurs in early childhood, disturbances of sleep and appetite are most characteristic; the infant has difficulty in falling asleep, awakes easily, suckles poorly, and frequently spits up. Later, vomiting occurs, and either diarrhea or constipation develop.

From the preschool years on, increased general excitability and the rapid onset of fatigue and exhaustion are observed, in addition to continued disturbances of sleep and appetite. Children who suffer from neuropathy blush easily in response to irritation. Motor hyperactivity, nervous tics, and stammering are frequent. In adolescence, autonomic-vascular instability becomes more acute, as evidenced by frequently occurring nervous palpitation, abrupt shifts in blood pressure, headaches, dizzy spells, and fainting spells. The prognosis is favorable, with the neuropathic symptoms usually disappearing with age.

REFERENCES

Simson, T. Nevropatii, psikhopatii i reaktivnye sostoianiia mladencheskogo vozrasta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1929.
Sukhareva, G. E. Klinicheskie lektsii po psikhiatrii detskogo vozrasta, vol. 2. Moscow, 1959.

L. M. SHMAONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
If you have diabetic neuropathy, take care of your feet and learn to properly compensate for what was lost.
Easing Pain No medications have been proven to reverse peripheral neuropathy, but anti-seizure drugs such as gabapentin (Neurontin) and pregabalin (Lyrica), as well as antidepressants like amitriptyline (Elavil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), and duloxetine (Cymbalta) may ease pain from the condition.
Practitioners tested the neuropathy detection tools on the patients and recorded whether they felt vibrations.
Acute weakness can rarely be due to necrotizing vasculitic neuropathy. It can mimic other acute inflammatory polyneuropathies like GuillainBarre syndrome.
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that metabolic derangement is associated with alteration in electrophysiological parameters of peripheral nerves before actual manifestations of neuropathy in Type 2 diabetic patients.
This was a prospective, open label clinical trial in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy between June 2012 and April 2013 undertaken in the Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (BIDE), a tertiary care diabetes unit in Karachi, Pakistan.
Malik added: "Because nerve damage cannot currently be reversed in diabetic neuropathy it is very important that patients who have CIDP are correctly diagnosed and treated as early as possible so that we limit long-term nerve damage."
Differences between subgroups of neuropathy were tested using the two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test.
Diabetes mellitus, the frequent endocrine turmoil, is characterised by metabolic abnormality and by longstanding complications like diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, angiopathy and neuropathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the existence of symptoms and signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes after ruling out other causes and often builds up as generalized asymptomatic dysfunction of peripheral nerve fibres.6
reported 7 patients with ipsilateral weakness and pain after hip surgery (THA = 5, PAO = 1, and femoral nail = 1) due to an inflammatory neuropathy including 4 cases previously published by Staff et al.
This newly awarded patent is said to further establish the company's leadership position in offering easy-to-use, automated and accurate point-of-care neuropathy testing.
"Consequences of vitamin [B.sub.12] deficiency, such as neuropathy or mental changes, may be profound," Dr.