Neuroptera


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Related to Neuroptera: order Neuroptera

Neuroptera

[nu̇′räp·tə·rə]
(invertebrate zoology)
An order of delicate insects having endopterygote development, chewing mouthparts, and soft bodies.

Neuroptera

 

(also Planipennia), an order of predatory insects having complete metamorphosis. The body length is 2–20 mm, and the wingspread reaches 120 mm. The mouthparts are formed for chewing. There are two pairs of almost identical transparent and reticulate wings. In larvae the mouthparts are formed for piercing and sucking: the sickle-shaped mandibles have a furrow, and the maxillae serve to pierce the prey and suck its blood. Digestion is external.

There are about 4,500 species, distributed principally in the tropics. Insemination with spermatophores is characteristic. Neuropterans develop in soil (families Dilaridae and Itonidae); on plants (Hemorobiidae and Chrysopidae); in colonies of ticks, coccids, and whiteflies (Coniopterygidae); in water near the shore (Osmylidae); or in the cavities of freshwater sponges (Sisyridae). The larvae of neuropterans with prehensile legs (Mantispidae) develop in the egg cocoons of spiders. Tropical species of the family Nemopteridae have greatly elongated hind wings; the larvae have a very long mesothorax. Large species of the family Ascalaphidae are found principally in the tropics (in the USSR, only in the south). They catch their prey in flight, and the larvae live on the soil surface. The larvae of Myrme-leontidae dig funnels in the sand, where they lie in wait for prey. Neuropterans are known from the Permian. Many species are beneficial, because they destroy orchard and forest pests.

REFERENCES

Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 3. Moscow, 1969.
Traité de zoologie, vol. 10, fasc. 1. Edited by P.-P. Grasse. Paris, 1951.

M. S. GILIAROV

References in periodicals archive ?
Specimens of Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Neuroptera also were collected primarily by this method.
The orders Plecoptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Tricoptera, and Diptera dominated above the point source, while the orders of Coleoptera and Neuroptera dominated below.
As a mark of the respect in which he was held by his peers, over 100 species and five genera of Diptera were named in his honour (2), together with taxa in at least 11 other insect orders (Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, fossil Grylloblattida, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Psocoptera, Strepsiptera) and four other classes of invertebrates (Malacostraca, Oligochaeta, fossil Ophiuroidea, Tardigrada) (M.
There have been several hundred insect molecular dating studies since Gaunt and Miles's 2002 seminal paper, and these studies have provided dating estimates for 19 of the approximately 30 insect orders (Odonata, Plecoptera, Orthoptera, Phasmatodea, Isoptera, Blattaria, Mantodea, Grylloblattodea, Hemiptera, Phthiraptera, Thysanoptera, Coleoptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Rhaphidioptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Trichoptera).
The order Neuroptera has received recent interest, due to their promise as biological control agents and a tolerance for several modern insecticides (Canard 1998).
COMMON NAME ORDER DESCRIPTION Spiders Araneae Eight legs, no wings Beetles Coleoptera Hard elytra Springtails Collembola Minute & wingless Earwigs Dermaptera "Pincer"-like cerci Flies, gnats, Diptera Only order with two wings mosquitoes Leafhoppers, Hemiptera Wings half hard, half planthoppers membranous Aphids Homoptera Small, with cornicles Wasps (many small Hymenoptera Usually with a constricted parasitoids), "waist" bees, ants Moths, Lepidoptera Scale-covered wings butterflies Lacewings Neuroptera Clear, vein-filled wings Harvestmen Opiliones Like spiders, often called "daddy longlegs" Crickets, Orthoptera Long hind legs for jumping grasshoppers, katydids
Mean Taxon percentage difference n Range Dermaptera 2687 1 -- Opiliones 1248 1 -- Heteroptera 593 1 -- Neuroptera 450 1 -- Lepidoptera 398 4 43-1200 Psocoptera 393 2 207-578 Coleoptera 254 2 76-432 Blattodea 201 2 98-304 Homoptera 195 2 103-287 Araneae 194 4 92-390 Hymenoptera 106 2 79-133 Diptera 58 1 --
4% Site Type Orthoptera Neuroptera Odonata Total Arcola Creek U 60 U 1 516 W 1 16 Geneva State U 65 Park U 4 136 Gott Fen W 417 W 1,349 W 23 Morgan Swamp U 35 U 137 W 34 Old Woman W 829 Creek W 684 W 7,455 W 2 409 W 872 W 442 W 161 U 1 418 U 1 2 916 U 146 Rittman U 1 1 277 U 2 184 W 702 Rosemont CC U 1 1,584 U 344 U 41 W 1 524 W 1 623 W 43 Winous Point W 3 15,965 W 9,070 W 1 8,457 W 1 2 23,296 Total 13 10 3 76.
Orders of arachnids and insects represented in the sampling included: Araneae, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Thysanoptera, and Lepidoptera.
For example, although large families such as Scarabaeidae and Muscidae cannot easily be assigned to FFG without further identification, many orders, such as adult Odonata, Neuroptera and Orthoptera, and superfamilies, such as parasitoid Ichneumonoidea and the piercing/sucking Pentatomoidea, share broad feeding styles.
The second superclade is a neuropterDid assemblage (Neuropteroidea), comprised of the Neuropterida, consisting of the Raphidioptera, Megaloptera and Neuroptera, which internally has variable support; plus the Coleopterida, comprising the Coleoptera and Strepsiptera (Wiegmann et al.
During the reproductive season, arthropods (Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Scorpionida, Lepidoptera, Spirobolida, and Dermaptera) accounted for 69.