from a single vesicle activates a small postsynaptic voltage change and comprises the elementary unit of synaptic communication, and vesicle fusion is triggered by calcium entry through presynaptic VGCCs or may occur spontaneously in the absence of an action potential activity.
2+] binding to synaptotagmin-1 C2 domains mediate neurotransmitter release
VAMP-2 gene in knockout mice, despite electrically stimulated neurotransmitter release
, is completely abrogated (30).
i] transients trigger activity-dependent developmental events in neurons, by activating gene expression, cytoskeletal elements, or neurotransmitter release
, whereas the characteristics of these responses are determined by amplitude, frequency, source, and spatial location of [Ca.
Members of these latter two mGluR subgroups reside predominantly on presynaptic axon terminals, where they act to inhibit neurotransmitter release
(Coutinho and Knopfel 2002).
When hair bundle motion exceeds a certain level, the transduction channels begin to open, the hair cell undergoes depolarization, and neurotransmitter release
They identified and isolated key molecular participants, defined fundamental interactions among these elements, and deciphered details that govern and assure rapid neurotransmitter release
These effects include cholinesterase inhibition as well as immediate and delayed-onset changes in synapse formation, neurotransmitter release
, neurotransmitter receptor expression, and intracellular signaling.
However, research by scientists at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, suggests that two distinct types of synaptic vesicles are responsible for the different modes of neurotransmitter release
These three agents block voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) to inhibit neurotransmitter release
, but in slightly different ways (Box 1).
Strikingly, he has identified vitamin K2, which is known for its role in bone formation and blood clotting, as a novel mitochondrial electron carrier molecule that is required to maintain high levels of mitochondrial activity and neurotransmitter release
We also validated that boosting extracellular calcium ion levels boosts seizure and migraine risk by 1) depolarizing nerve membranes, 2) increasing calcium channel mediated neurotransmitter release
and 3) boosting muscle contractility," according to Mark Zamoyski, NexGen Biomedical, Inc.