With the assumption of no shift in the neutral axis
during bending, the outer and inner section nonlinear strain-hardened bending stresses can be obtained using Equation 5 as depicted in Figure 1.
(4) The depth of the neutral axis
had almost no effect on [s.sub.y]; however, a power function reduction tendency of [s.sub.u] was observed with the increase in the depth of the neutral axis
Neglecting the hydrodynamic force may cause significant bias of the ring-liner clearance estimation, but has a negligible effect on the displacement of the ring neutral axis
and the orientation of the ring cross-section which are major outputs of the ring dynamics model.
The greater reinforcement ratio creates greater depth of the neutral axis
and consequently bigger strains develop.
The bottom flange of H-steel will be yielded with the increase of the loading deflection, which results in the decrease of the section stiffness and the gradual rise of neutral axis
. As can be seen from the figure, when the deflection increases from 13 mm to 25 mm, the distance between the neutral axis
and beam bottom increases from 0.13 m to 0.18 m.
4,c); [S.sup.clip.sub.x]--static moment of inertia of cross sectional area dF of about the neutral axis
Yield strength of neutral axis
weld isn't recorded because, according to the specification, it is not recommended.
The identified neutral axis
was generally tilted superior to the Friedman axis and in a greater degree of retroversion.
The stress at fiber most distant from the neutral axis
(position with) z = h/ 2,
The unknown position of the neutral axis
is obtained from expression of residual stresses by simultaneously solving equilibrium equations of axial forces and bending moments:
As we will see later on in the modeling of the problem, the stretching of the beams neutral axis
due to fixed ends condition adds another nonlinearity to the dynamical behavior of the system.
When the load exceeded 1/3 to 1/2 of the ultimate load, some fine cracks within the moment span emerged and expanded along the parallel-to-grain direction below the neutral axis
as the load increased, and bulking could be observed at the top surface of the beams in some cases.