New Granada


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New Granada

(grənä`də), former Spanish colony, N South America. It included at its greatest extent present Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. Between 1499 and 1510 a host of conquerors explored the Caribbean coast of Panama and South America. After 1514, Pedro Arias de Ávila was successful in assuring permanent colonization of the isthmus of Panama. At Santa Marta (1525) and Cartagena (1533), Spanish control of the Colombian coast was firmly established, and in the next few years the northern hinterland was explored. German adventurers, notably Nikolaus Federmann, penetrated the Venezuelan and Colombian llanos between 1530 and 1546. By far the greatest of the conquerors was Gonzalo Jiménez de QuesadaJiménez de Quesada, Gonzalo
, c.1499–1579, Spanish conquistador in Colombia. Chief magistrate of Santa Marta, he was commissioned to explore the Magdalena in search of El Dorado.
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, who in 1536 ascended the Magdalena River, climbed the mighty Andean cordillera, where he subdued the powerful Chibcha (an advanced native civilization), and by 1538 had founded Santa Fé de Bogotá, later known simply as BogotáBogotá
, city (1993 pop. 4,931,796), central Colombia, capital and largest city of Colombia, and capital of Cundinamarca dept. A picturesque, spacious city, Bogotá is on a high, fertile plateau (c.8,560 ft/2,610 m) in the E Andes and has a cool, moist climate.
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. He named the region El Nuevo Reino de Granada [the new kingdom of Granada]. During the next 10 years the conquest was virtually completed. No civil government was established in New Granada until 1549, when an audiencia court, a body with both executive and judicial authority, was set up in Bogotá. To further stabilize colonial government, New Granada was made a presidency (an administrative and political division headed by a governor) in 1564, and the audiencia was relegated to its proper judicial functions. Loosely attached to the viceroyalty of Peru, the presidency came to include Panama, Venezuela, and most of Colombia. Disputes with—and the great distance from—Lima led to the creation (1717) of the viceroyalty of New Granada, comprising Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. Later the captaincy general of Venezuela and the presidency of Quito were detached, creating a political division that was to survive the revolution against Spain and the efforts of Simón Bolívar to establish a republic of Greater Colombia. The struggle for independence began in 1810, and by 1830 Venezuela and Ecuador had seceded, and the remnant (Colombia and Panama) was renamed the Republic of New Granada. This became the Republic of Colombia in 1886, from which the present Panama seceded in 1903.

Bibliography

See A. J. Kuethe, Military Reform and Society in New Granada (1978).

New Granada

1. a former Spanish presidency and later viceroyalty in South America. At its greatest extent it consisted of present-day Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador
2. the name of Colombia when it formed, with Panama, part of Great Colombia (1819--30)
References in periodicals archive ?
Chapter 1 details the scale of trans-imperial and often illicit trade between New Granada and the larger non-Spanish speaking world of the Atlantic.
The clash over the relevant criteria for receiving an indulto undermined the government's constitutional project and contributed to the unmaking of New Granada as ongoing Liberal factionalism facilitated the election of Mariano Ospina Rodriguez and the Civil War of 1860, thus ushering in the Federal era.
Over the first century as an independent country, statesmen and influential people in New Granada and Colombia fostered progress by analyzing not only the United States' institutions and developments, but also global experiences-mainly from neighboring countries in Latin America-an issue largely ignored by the historiography.
She questions such systematicity for New Spain but primarily uses an "ethnographic" reading of archival data from New Granada to challenge the extrapolation of interpretations based on New Spain to the whole Spanish-American Empire, especially in its early period, and to challenge a narrow focus on socioracial categories (21).
Un investigador londinense que logro desarrollar estudios etnologicos desde suramerica fue William Bollaert (1801-1876), un escritor, quimico, geografo y etnografo que trabajo desde muy joven, a la edad de 18 anos, en Peru en la decada de los treinta, y que durante los anos cincuenta atraviesa los Andes desde la Nueva Granada hasta Chile, consolidando en 1860 su escrito Antiquarian, Ethnological and other researches in New Granada, Equador, Peru and Chile, with observations on thepre-incarial, incarial, and other monuments of Peruvian nations (36).
Although the Catholic governor heeded her warning, her abusive mistress appealed the judgment in the Superior Court of New Granada and successfully overturned the lower court's ruling.
The topics include Alexander von Humboldt's scientific expedition through the Americas and the impact of his Atlantic experience, challenging notions of race and slavery along the peripheries of the revolutionary Atlantic world, the criminal career and punishment of Patrick Madan from Ireland to Africa, African maroon leader Benkos Bioho in New Granada, and Paul Cuffe's journey from 'Musta' to Atlantic-African 1778-1811.
Snow sports enthusiasts can also fly on the new Granada service to the ski resorts of the Sierra Nevada mountains.
March is the start of the rainy season in coastal New Granada, and when the rains came they hatched a fresh crop of mosquitoes capable of carrying the yellow fever virus.
In considering Sephardim in Dutch Brazil, Suriname, the west coast of Africa, and Indian converts to Judaism in New Granada or, roughly, today's Columbia, the authors of the book's four important essays on religion have provided an interesting and effective analysis of the schismatic nature of the Judaism that characterized these diverse communities.
Santa Fe de Bogota followed on July 20 with a junta that initially included the viceroy of New Granada but soon dismissed his services.
Segal Garcia, Oscar nominee Karen Black ("Five Easy Pieces", actress Judy Norton ("The Waltons") and a roster of other local celebrities and dignitaries will headline the ribbon-cutting Wednesday at More Art's new Granada Hills home.