New Hebrides


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New Hebrides

(hĕb`rĭdēz), Fr. Nouvelles Hébrides: see VanuatuVanuatu
, officially Republic of Vanuatu, independent republic (2015 est. pop. 265,000), c.5,700 sq mi (14,760 sq km), South Pacific, E of Australia. Vanuatu is a 450-mi (724-km) chain of 80 islands, of which the most important are Espíritu Santo (the largest), Efate,
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

New Hebrides

 

archipelago of 80 islands (12 of them large, including Espiritu Santo, Ambrim, and Efate) in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, in Melanesia. It is a joint possession (condominium) of Great Britain and France. The archipelago covers an area of 14,800 sq km. The population in 1972 was 90,000, of whom about 93 percent were indigenous peoples speaking various Austronesian languages. Most of the native people are Melanesians, and the rest are Polynesians. Later settlers include French, English, Australians, Tahitians, Uveans, and Futunans. Most of the inhabitants are Christians, chiefly Presbyterians. The administrative center and chief port is Vila on Efate.

The islands are mountainous, with a maximum elevation of 1,810m. They are composed of volcanic rock and have about 60 volcanoes, ten of which are active, as well as many solfatara, fumaroles, and hot springs. Natural resources include deposits of sulfur and manganese (the latter is being worked). The climate is tropical and humid. Mean monthly temperatures range from 20° to 27°C, and the annual precipitation may reach 1,000 mm. Tropical rain forests cover the windward eastern slopes, and the western slopes support sparse woodlands. The economy is based on the plantation cultivation of coconut palms and cacao trees. Other crops include sugarcane, coffee, and cotton. Animal husbandry is also important. The forests yield valuable timber, including species of the genus Agathis.

The islands were discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese navigator P. Quirós. In 1774, J. Cook explored the islands and named them the New Hebrides because of their mountainous coast, which reminded him of the Hebrides Islands in Europe. The condominium was established in 1906. The islands are governed by a joint administration in which the British and French high commissioners participate on an equal basis. In 1957 the Advisory Council of 30 members (12 Melanesians and the rest English and French) was formed as the local governing body.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
batesi speiseri (Malo, New Hebrides) and female type specimen of M.
The first political party was established in the early 1970s and originally was called the New Hebrides National Party.
This federation was supposed to include Santo and the surrounding islets, but not the urban centre of Luganville; all the neighbouring islands, Aore, Malo, Aoba and Maewo; all the islands belonging to the Banks and Torres group; and all the other groups in the New Hebrides wishing to join the federation as a free and independent people.
In the other political entities, Vanuatu (New Hebrides), Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea and West Papua, evangelization was carried out by various denominations and at various times, sometimes more than once.
Remarks.--The genus Tanna Berland 1938 was proposed as a monotypic genus of Araneae in the Salticidae for the species Tanna ornatipes Berland 1938 from the New Hebrides (Berland 1938:141).
Troops from both Papua New Guinea and Australia, in service of the socialist government that inherited the New Hebrides after the French and British left, suppressed Stevens' rebellion.
It had the aim of settling long-standing disputes between the UK and France in countries such as Morocco, Egypt, Siam, Madagascar, the New Hebrides, West and Central Africa and Newfoundland.
OUR Euro bid comes unstuck when Jack McConnell admits that after taking expert opinion he still isn't sure where the New Hebrides or New Caledonia are.
1913: A volcanic eruption took place in the New Hebrides.
As operations began in the Solomons in August 1942, with the invasion of Guadalcanal, B-17s operating out of the New Hebrides were there adding their punch.
And at the end of the South Pacific season, a one-way cruise sails from Fiji to Cairns via Vanuatu (New Hebrides), New Caledonia, and Australia's Great Barrier Reef.
From the bitter Arctic, the Alabama made a non-stop, 6,600-mile voyage, through the Panama Canal, to the simmering heat in New Hebrides in the South Pacific, a staging area halfway between Hawaii and the Philippines.