New Hebrides


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New Hebrides

(hĕb`rĭdēz), Fr. Nouvelles Hébrides: see VanuatuVanuatu
, formerly New Hebrides
, officially Republic of Vanuatu, independent republic (2009 pop. 243,304), c.5,700 sq mi (14,760 sq km), South Pacific, E of Australia.
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New Hebrides

 

archipelago of 80 islands (12 of them large, including Espiritu Santo, Ambrim, and Efate) in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, in Melanesia. It is a joint possession (condominium) of Great Britain and France. The archipelago covers an area of 14,800 sq km. The population in 1972 was 90,000, of whom about 93 percent were indigenous peoples speaking various Austronesian languages. Most of the native people are Melanesians, and the rest are Polynesians. Later settlers include French, English, Australians, Tahitians, Uveans, and Futunans. Most of the inhabitants are Christians, chiefly Presbyterians. The administrative center and chief port is Vila on Efate.

The islands are mountainous, with a maximum elevation of 1,810m. They are composed of volcanic rock and have about 60 volcanoes, ten of which are active, as well as many solfatara, fumaroles, and hot springs. Natural resources include deposits of sulfur and manganese (the latter is being worked). The climate is tropical and humid. Mean monthly temperatures range from 20° to 27°C, and the annual precipitation may reach 1,000 mm. Tropical rain forests cover the windward eastern slopes, and the western slopes support sparse woodlands. The economy is based on the plantation cultivation of coconut palms and cacao trees. Other crops include sugarcane, coffee, and cotton. Animal husbandry is also important. The forests yield valuable timber, including species of the genus Agathis.

The islands were discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese navigator P. Quirós. In 1774, J. Cook explored the islands and named them the New Hebrides because of their mountainous coast, which reminded him of the Hebrides Islands in Europe. The condominium was established in 1906. The islands are governed by a joint administration in which the British and French high commissioners participate on an equal basis. In 1957 the Advisory Council of 30 members (12 Melanesians and the rest English and French) was formed as the local governing body.

References in periodicals archive ?
Willemse (1926) described a new species, Megacrania bakeri, from New Hebrides.
The explicit purpose of these laws was to counter Peacock's manoeuvring, but also to set an example and mitigate the effects of the Condominium law which, in 1971, had given the New Hebrides tax haven status (on the history of Vanuatu tax haven see Rawlings 2005).
The New Hebrides was visited by Presbyterians in 1839 for the first time, but the expedition was disastrous and ended in a cannibalistic feast.
From the bitter Arctic, the Alabama made a non-stop, 6,600-mile voyage, through the Panama Canal, to the simmering heat in New Hebrides in the South Pacific, a staging area halfway between Hawaii and the Philippines.
Particularly enterprising in this respect were the seven Scotsmen whose efforts to convert the inhabitants of certain islands in that group known as the New Hebrides were supported by the Scottish Presbyterian churches during the period from 1852 to 1933.
When he was transferred to New Hebrides, now Vanuatu, he was put in charge of the motor pool and the power plants since he had taken automotive, diesel and radio electronics courses in high school.
Sometimes this happened in the wake of campaigns for national independence, while at others it happened well ahead of such movements - for example in the New Hebrides (Vanuatu), where the first generation of political leaders after independence were largely drawn from clergy and from church institutions.
We'd left Auck-land in New Zealand on the cruise ship Marco Polo to visit Tonga, Fiji, the New Hebrides and New Caledonia.
An excellent example of a brine formation from seawater evaporation has been observed in the Peru forearc basins; brines from volcanic ash alteration occur in the New Hebrides intra-arc Aoba basin and in an Izu-Bonin forearc basin.
French ambassadors in Port Vila during the 1980s faced persistent local Francophobia resulting from the troubled decolonisation of the New Hebrides.
However, Merlin notes, kava's ancestral roots go back some 3,000 years to Piper wichmannii, which grows wild on the damp hillsides of New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, a group of South Pacific islands formerly called the New Hebrides.
Osa Johnson, born in Kansas, accompanied her husband, <IR> MARTIN JOHNSON </IR> , on photographic expeditions to the South Seas (1912), the Solomon Islands and the New Hebrides (1914), Borneo (1917-19), the African jungles (1921), and Borneo again (1935-36).