Persian language

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Persian language,

member of the Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by more than a billion people, chiefly in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (see The Indo-European Family of Languages, table).
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 languages). The official language of Iran, it has about 38 million speakers in Iran and another 8 million in Afghanistan. Historically the Persian language falls into three periods: Old, Middle, and Modern. Old Persian is known chiefly from cuneiform inscriptions dating from the time of the Achaemenid kings of ancient Persia (6th–4th cent. B.C.). Old Persian was highly inflected, as was Avestan, which is regarded by some as a form of Old Persian and by others as a separate tongue. Avestan was the language of the sacred texts of ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism
, religion founded by Zoroaster, but with many later accretions. Scriptures

Zoroastrianism's scriptures are the Avesta or the Zend Avesta [Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary].
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 that are known as the Avesta (probably composed c.7th–5th cent. B.C.). Middle Persian derives directly from Old Persian. Also called Pahlavi, Middle Persian prevailed under the Sassanid, or Sassanian, rulers of Persia (3d–7th cent. A.D.). Grammatically, much simplification of inflection took place in Middle Persian, which was recorded both in an Aramaic alphabet and in a script called Pahlavi. Middle Persian also had a noteworthy literature of Manichaean and Zoroastrian texts. The modern form of Persian evolved directly from Middle Persian and may be said to have begun in the 9th or 10th cent. A.D. It has not changed much since that date. The grammar of Modern Persian is comparatively simple. The inflection of nouns and verbs has been greatly reduced since the ancient stage of the language. A number of Arabic words were added to the vocabulary as the result of the conquest of the Persians by the Muslim Arabs in the 7th cent. A.D. Modern Persian is the medium of an old and great literature and is written in a modification of the Arabic alphabet. Modern Persian is also known as Fārsī.

Bibliography

See R. G. Kent, Old Persian (1950); A. K. S. Lambton, Persian Grammar (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
In a televised address to felicitate the nation on the advent of the New Persian Year, the leader said improvement of domestic production would be the cornerstone of a better national economy that could lower the rate of unemployment and reduce social vulnerabilities.
Addressing a colorful Nowruz festival arranged by nine diplomatic mission in Pakistan, the United Nations and Serena Hotels to mark the onset of spring and beginning of the New Persian Year, the president said the nature showed all of its splendors but the humans ignored and took it for granted.
and Iran, a new historical fiction novel titled, "In the Shadow of the Kingmakers," explores the igniting conflict between the two countries a year before a new Persian king was installed.
It would take a couple of centuries for New Persian to replace Middle Persian as the primary written expression of the Persian language.
Stripes also run from the bonnet to the rear hatch over a new Persian Blue exterior colour.
They've been aggressively spreading their Islamic Revolution and constructing what can only be called a new Persian Empire.
The 16 papers that emerged discuss such topics as the growing Turkicization of the Sogdian language, the differences between Middle and New Persian, the treasure of Nagyszentmikl s: a golden contribution to the reconstruction of history, the role and function of Mongolian and Turkic in Ilkhanid Iran, and convergence and variation in the Turkic varieties of Iran: examples from Qashqe'A.
Other catering apprenticeships are available at the Baginton Pub Company and Brandon Hall Hotel & Spa, Front of house apprenticeships are being offered at Mahdi Abjenari, a new Persian restaurant that has opened in Coventry and Stoneleigh Deer Park Golf Club.
Although they are bringing back what we have a craving for, they are also spicing things up a bit with new Persian and Korean tastes, as well as new vegetarian stalls.
Mohammed Ali Jaafari, Commander of the Revolutionary Guard (formally, Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, known by its acronym IRGC), gave a major policy speech, his first in the new Persian year.
This is the expected capacity of the new Persian Gulf Star Refinery in Assalouyeh, which is to be on stream in the southern Iranian port of Bandar Abbas, aimed at boosting exports of products such as European-compliant gasoline.
According to the article, in the last year, 110 new Persian olim arrived in Israel through a third country.