Persian language

(redirected from New Persian)

Persian language,

member of the Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by more than a billion people, chiefly in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (see The Indo-European Family of Languages, table).
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 languages). The official language of Iran, it has about 38 million speakers in Iran and another 8 million in Afghanistan. Historically the Persian language falls into three periods: Old, Middle, and Modern. Old Persian is known chiefly from cuneiform inscriptions dating from the time of the Achaemenid kings of ancient Persia (6th–4th cent. B.C.). Old Persian was highly inflected, as was Avestan, which is regarded by some as a form of Old Persian and by others as a separate tongue. Avestan was the language of the sacred texts of ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism
, religion founded by Zoroaster, but with many later accretions. Scriptures

Zoroastrianism's scriptures are the Avesta or the Zend Avesta [Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary].
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 that are known as the Avesta (probably composed c.7th–5th cent. B.C.). Middle Persian derives directly from Old Persian. Also called Pahlavi, Middle Persian prevailed under the Sassanid, or Sassanian, rulers of Persia (3d–7th cent. A.D.). Grammatically, much simplification of inflection took place in Middle Persian, which was recorded both in an Aramaic alphabet and in a script called Pahlavi. Middle Persian also had a noteworthy literature of Manichaean and Zoroastrian texts. The modern form of Persian evolved directly from Middle Persian and may be said to have begun in the 9th or 10th cent. A.D. It has not changed much since that date. The grammar of Modern Persian is comparatively simple. The inflection of nouns and verbs has been greatly reduced since the ancient stage of the language. A number of Arabic words were added to the vocabulary as the result of the conquest of the Persians by the Muslim Arabs in the 7th cent. A.D. Modern Persian is the medium of an old and great literature and is written in a modification of the Arabic alphabet. Modern Persian is also known as Fārsī.

Bibliography

See R. G. Kent, Old Persian (1950); A. K. S. Lambton, Persian Grammar (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
Remarkably, in the Judeo-Tat lexicon we find words belonging to all stages of New Persian.
This is the expected capacity of the new Persian Gulf Star Refinery in Assalouyeh, which is to be on stream in the southern Iranian port of Bandar Abbas, aimed at boosting exports of products such as European-compliant gasoline.
President Rouhani also prayed for the prosperity of the country and peace for region and the whole globe in the New Persian Year of 1394.
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Cracks appeared in the structure three years back, the official recalled, saying: "The ministry promised launching work on a new building at the start of the new Persian year.
Under a vital income amplification format of Iraq, the country has started filling of crude oil Friday from a new Persian Gulf- based offshore export terminal.
It is to be recalled that Majalla magazine has recently launched its new Persian language website, the first of its kind within the publications of the Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC).
Among the topics are definiteness and deixis in Middle Persian, new light on the Middle Persian-Chinese bilingual inscription from Zi'an, New Persian texts in Manichean script from Turfan, obscene vocabulary in Stiengass' dictionary, and Minabi notes.
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Beginning with a historical backdrop of the Persian Empire in Jewish history, the author informs us that after the conquest of the Babylonian empire by the kings of Persia and Media, life improved dramatically for the Jews as their new Persian rulers permitted them to return to their land and to "rebuild the Beis HaMikdash and the wall around Jerusalem.
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