infant mortality

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infant mortality

(hardware)
It is common lore among hackers (and in the electronics industry at large) that the chances of sudden hardware failure drop off exponentially with a machine's time since first use (that is, until the relatively distant time at which enough mechanical wear in I/O devices and thermal-cycling stress in components has accumulated for the machine to start going senile). Up to half of all chip and wire failures happen within a new system's first few weeks; such failures are often referred to as "infant mortality" problems (or, occasionally, as "sudden infant death syndrome").

See bathtub curve, burn-in period.

Infant Mortality

 

the rate of death of live-borns during the first year of life. Infant mortality, with the birthrate and mortality, is a statistical index of natural population dynamics; it is expressed by the number of deceased infants per 100 or per 1,000 live-births. In the USSR a live-born is defined as an infant who has taken at least one breath. Infant mortality is basically a function of socioeconomic causes and shifts in one direction or another when these change. Thanks to measures of the system of maternity and childhood protection and to the system of antenatal protection of the fetus created by Soviet physicians, infant mortality in the USSR has sharply decreased (see Table 1).

According to UN data, infant mortality in the socialist countries in 1969 (per 1,000 births) was as follows: Bulgaria,

Table 1. Infant mortality in Russia and the USSR
 19131940195019601970
Deceased infants per 1,000 births269182813525

30.5; Hungary, 33.6; German Democratic Republic, 20.4; Poland, 34.3; Rumania, 54.9; and Czechoslovakia, 22.9. In contrast to the USSR, in certain capitalist countries infants who die before their births are recorded are considered to be stillborn; therefore, the indexes of infant morality in those countries do not correspond to reality and give lower figures.

References in periodicals archive ?
According to the new figures, newborn deaths, that is deaths in the first four weeks of life (neonatal period), today account for 41 per cent of all child deaths before the age of five.
KATHMANDU -- UNICEF in South Asia is releasing a new South Asia Health Atlas to highlight the importance of two major health problems: tackling newborn deaths and ensuring children are fully immunised in the region.
He added that when babies are born not breathing, it is one of the major causes of newborn death in regions with limited resources as the majority of deliveries in resourcestrained areas are done by the midwife who is not really taught how to deal with a baby once they were born.
Listeriosis during pregnancy results in a fetal loss in about 20 percent and newborn death in about 3 percent of cases," the (https://www.
Smoking during pregnancy increases the chances of premature delivery, stillbirth and newborn death, and may even dry up breast milk.
Based on few studies, terminating a wanted pregnancy late in pregnancy due to fetal abnormality appeared to be associated with negative psychological reactions equivalent to those experienced by women who miscarry a wanted pregnancy or experience a stillbirth or newborn death, but less than those who deliver a child with life-threatening abnormalities.
Decreasing newborn death rates in Indonesia are encouraging, but it is not clear that these decreases are associated with greater uptake of professional delivery care at home or in health facilities.
Save the Children teams up with World Health Organization to produce most comprehensive newborn death estimates to date
Premature birth is the leading cause of newborn death and a major cause of lifelong disability.
Generally speaking, a newborn death can be prevented by practising basic newborn care.
Prematurity is a leading cause of newborn death and is also a major cause of illness and disability among infants.
This means that for every 1,040 women having elective induction of labour at 40 weeks, one newborn death may be prevented, but this would result in seven more admissions to a special care baby unit, the researchers said.