Newcastle, Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of

Newcastle, Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of,

1693–1768, English politician, brother of Henry PelhamPelham, Henry
, 1696–1754, British statesman; brother of Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of Newcastle. He entered Parliament in 1717 and served Sir Robert Walpole as secretary for war (1724–30) and paymaster-general (1730–43).
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. He inherited (1711) the estates of his uncle, John Holles, duke of Newcastle, adopted his name, and received (1715) his title. In 1724 he became secretary of state under Sir Robert WalpoleWalpole, Robert, 1st earl of Orford,
1676–1745, English statesman. Early Life and Career

He was the younger son of a prominent Whig family of Norfolk.
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, and he retained that position after Walpole's fall and through his brother's long ministry (1743–54). In 1754 he succeeded his brother as first lord of the treasury, or prime minister. His weak policy in the Seven Years War led to his resignation in 1756, but the next year he returned to power as nominal head of a coalition ministry with William Pitt, later 1st earl of ChathamChatham, William Pitt, 1st earl of
, 1708–78, British statesman, known as the Great Commoner. Proud, dramatic, and patriotic, Chatham excelled as a war minister and orator. He was the father of William Pitt.
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. Forced (1762) out of office by George III's favorite, Lord Bute, he later served (1765) as lord privy seal under the marquess of Rockingham. Newcastle was ineffective and irresolute in his conduct of public affairs, but he wielded immense political influence through his clever use of patronage, helping to provide parliamentary majorities for Walpole, Pelham, and Pitt.

Bibliography

See B. Williams, Carteret and Newcastle (1943, repr. 1966); J. B. Owen, The Rise of the Pelhams (1957, repr. 1971); R. A. Kelch, Newcastle; A Duke without Money (1974); R. Middleton, The Bells of Victory: The Pitt-Newcastle Victory and the Conduct of the Seven Years' War (1985).

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