Newcastle upon Tyne

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Newcastle upon Tyne,

city and metropolitan borough (1991 pop. 199,064), NE England, on the Tyne River. The city is an important shipping and trade center. The famous coal-shipping industry began in the 13th cent.; coal, however, was exceeded by wool exports until the 16th cent. A number of heavy industries are also there, such as shipbuilding, marine machinery and equipment, defense equipment, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The city experienced an industrial revival in the 1990s with industries manufacturing computer components, motor vehicles, and household appliances. Several bridges cross the Tyne to GatesheadGateshead
, metropolitan borough (1991 pop. 91,429), NE England, on the Tyne River opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. Service industries, light engineering, paints, refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning equipment, ordnance, and wire and cable are among the city's industries.
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, including the tilting, arc-shaped Gateshead Millenium Bridge for pedestrians and cyclists.

The city rests on the site of the Roman military station Pons Aelii, at Hadrian's WallHadrian's Wall,
ancient Roman wall, 73.5 mi (118.3 km) long, across the narrow part of the island of Great Britain from Wallsend on the Tyne River to Bowness at the head of Solway Firth. It was mainly built from c.A.D.
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. Later the site was occupied by the Angles until the Norman conquest. In 1080, Robert IIRobert II
(Robert Curthose), c.1054–1134, duke of Normandy (1087–1106); eldest son of King William I of England. Aided by King Philip I of France, he rebelled (1077) against his father. Father and son became reconciled, but Robert was later exiled.
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, duke of Normandy and eldest son of William the Conqueror, had a fortified castle built (from which Newcastle takes its name). The castle was besieged and repaired several times; the oldest remaining parts date from 1177. The city walls, of which traces and towers remain, are attributed to Edward I. For 10 months in 1646, Charles ICharles I,
1600–1649, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625–49), second son of James I and Anne of Denmark. Early Life

He became heir to the throne on the death of his older brother Henry in 1612 and was made prince of Wales in 1616.
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 was a prisoner in Newcastle.

The Cathedral of St. Nicholas dates partly from the 14th cent. Other notable old buildings include Trinity Almshouse (1492) and the Royal Grammar School, founded in the 16th cent. Among the many educational institutions are the Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne, formerly King's College.

Newcastle Upon Tyne

 

a city in Great Britain, and the administrative center of the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. Population, 222,200 (1971). The city is a transportation junction and port at the mouth of the Tyne River, near the point where it flows into the North Sea. It is the center of the Tyneside conurbation. The chief industries are shipbuilding, ship repair, and the production of electrical equipment, boilers, turbines, ship’s engines, and mining equipment. It is also a commercial and financial center. A university was established in the city in 1963, and the city has a museum of science and industry in which G. Stephenson’s steam locomotive is exhibited.

Remains of the Roman Wall (second century) and city walls dating from 1265 have survived. The city layout was unplanned until the early 19th century, when certain streets were redesigned by the architects J. Dobson and R. Grainger. Noteworthy sites include a Romanesque castle (c. 1080), a dungeon (1172–77), the Black Gate (mid-13th century), a late Gothic cathedral (c. 1216–1359, with a tower dating from the second third of the 15th century), and the town hall (mid-17th century, architect, R. Trollop). The city has a two-level iron bridge, built between 1845 and 1849 by the engineer R. Stephenson. A notable example of modern architecture is the shipbuilding company’s building (1943–52), designed by the architect R. Sheppard.

REFERENCE

Middlebrook, S. Newcastle Upon Tyne. Newcastle Upon Tyne, 1950.

Newcastle upon Tyne

1. a port in NE England in Newcastle upon Tyne unitary authority, Tyne and Wear, near the mouth of the River Tyne opposite Gateshead: Roman remains; engineering industries, including ship repairs; two universities (1937, 1992). Pop.: 189 863 (2001)
2. a unitary authority in NE England, in Tyne and Wear. Pop.: 266 600 (2003 est.). Area: 112 sq. km (43 sq. miles)
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