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Neyshabur (nāshäbo͝orˈ), city (1991 pop. 135,681), Razavi Khorasan prov., NE Iran; also called Nishapur. It is the trade center for a farm region where cotton, fruit, and grain are grown. Manufactures include food products and leather goods; turquoise is mined nearby. Neyshabur was founded by the Sassanid ruler Shapur I in the 3d cent. A.D. It was rebuilt (4th cent.) by Shapur II and became one of Persia's foremost cities. Under the Seljuk Turks (11th–12th cent.) it was an important cultural center; several colleges were founded there by Nizam al-Mulk. Al-Ghazali, the noted philosopher of the 11th–12th cent., studied in Neyshabur, and his famous contemporary Omar Khayyam was born in the city and is buried there. The tomb of Omar was rebuilt in 1934. Near Neyshabur archaeologists have made important finds of glazed pottery and stucco work from the 9th and 10th cent.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in northeastern Iran, in the ostan (province) of Khorasan. Population, 35,000 (1971). Linked by highway and railroad with Tehran and Meshed, Nishapur is the center of an irrigated agricultural region (cotton, olives, fruit, grapes, livestock). There are food and leather industries. Turquoise is mined nearby.

Nishapur was founded in the middle of the third century. The city’s name derives from the name of the Sassanid king Shapur I (or Shapur II). In the middle of the seventh century the city was captured by the Arabs. It was the capital of the Tahirid state in the ninth century and of the Khurasan region of the Samanid state in the tenth century. From the ninth to 12th centuries, Nishapur was one of the Middle East’s most important economic centers. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the city was a residence of the Great Seljuks. It was destroyed in 1153 by the Oghuz tribe and again in 1221 by the Mongols. Almost the entire population perished. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Nishapur was rebuilt yet did not regain its former significance. In 1722 the city suffered an Afghan invasion. The Persian and Tadzhik poet-scientist Omar Khayyam was born and died in Nishapur.

Nishapur, which consists of “old” and “new” cities, has a square grid layout, with intersecting main streets. Excavations have revealed the remains of palaces and villas from the eighth, ninth, or tenth centuries. The structures are embellished with wall paintings, stucco reliefs, and carved ornament. In the Middle Ages, Nishapur was a center for ceramic manufacture. Situated near the city is the Tomb of Omar Khayyam, a rotunda decorated with tracery (stone, glazed tiles with floral ornament and inscriptions; 1963, architect Kh. Seyhun).


Upton, M. “Excavations at Nishapur.” Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1936, vol. 31, no. 9.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a town in NE Iran, at an altitude of 1195 m (3920 ft.): birthplace and burial place of Omar Khayy?m. Pop.: 208 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The most serious seismic hazards in East Alborz province, which contains large cities such as Neyshabour, Esfaraien and Shahrod, are landslides in high regions, settlements in some lowlands, surface faulting.
TEHRAN, Iran, Safar 26, 1433, Jan 20, 2012, SPA -- Iran's state TV said the number of people injured by a Thursday earthquake of moderate strength affecting the northeastern city of Neyshabour has increased to around 230, according to AP.
Large numbers of Iranian and foreign guests convened in ceremonies in Attar's hometown Nishabour (also known as Neyshabour) and provincial capital city of Mashhad in northwestern Iran in remembrance of the talented poet who lived from 1161-1239 AD.
Khorasan generalissimo, who lived in Neyshabour, was the army commander of Samanids and the highest military rank of Bukhara.
Mashhad is the capital of the province; Ghouchan, Dargaz, Chenaran, Sarakhs, Fariman, Torbat-e Jam, Taybad, Ferdows, Ghayen, Khaf, Rashtkhar, Kashmar, Bardaskan, Neyshabour, Sabzevar, Gonabad, Kalat and Khalil Abad are other cities of South Khorasan.
Our population included personnel (including universities faculty members and staffs) working at physical education offices of state and non- state universities of Khorasan Razavi (Ferdowsi, Hakim Sabsevari Sabzevar, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad & Neyshabour Branches) during education year of 1390-91.
"Anyone who imagines that pressures can still leave impact on the Iranian people is not qualified for negotiations," Mottaki, a former foreign minister, said in the Northeastern city of Neyshabour city, on Wednesday.
Reports on Friday said the number of the people injured by the Thursday earthquake of moderate strength affecting the northeastern city of Neyshabour has increased to around 230.
Khayyam, whose full name is Ghiyad ad-Din Abul-Fat'h Umar ibn Ibrahim Khayyam Neyshaburi, was born in Neyshabour, Northeastern Iran on May 18, 1048.