Newfoundland

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Newfoundland,

island and province, Canada: see Newfoundland and LabradorNewfoundland and Labrador
, province (2001 pop. 512,930), 156,185 sq mi (404,519 sq km), E Canada. The province consists of the island of Newfoundland and adjacent islands (2001 pop.
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, province.

Newfoundland,

breed of massive, powerful working dogworking dog,
classification used by breeders and kennel clubs to designate dogs raised by humans to herd cattle and sheep, as draft animals, as message dispatchers in wartime, in police and rescue work, as guardians of persons and property, or as guides (see guide dog) for the
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 developed in Newfoundland, probably in the 17th cent., and later perfected in England. It stands from 25 to 28 in. (63.5–71.1 cm) high at the shoulder and weighs from 110 to 150 lb (49.9–68.1 kg). Its dense, flat-lying coat is coarse and rather oily and is usually a dull jet black in color. The Landseer type of Newfoundland is one in which the color is other than solid black, the most frequent being black with white markings. The precise origin of the Newfoundland is obscure, but the most convincing evidence points to the crossbreeding of arctic and other dogs native to Newfoundland with the ship dogs of European fishermen. Specimens of the resulting breed, similar to the modern variety but smaller, were then brought to England, where their size and appearance were refined. The Newfoundland is an excellent water dog and has been used to rescue drowning people. It also has been a popular draft animal, particularly on its native island. Today it is raised for show competition and as a family companion, being especially gentle with children. See dogdog,
carnivorous, domesticated wolf (Canis lupus familiaris) of the family Canidae, to which the jackal, fox, and tanuki also belong. The family Canidae is sometimes referred to as the dog family, and its characteristics, e.g.
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.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Newfoundland

 

a province in eastern Canada, on the Atlantic coast. It includes the island of Newfoundland and the northeastern part of the Labrador Peninsula. Its area is 404,600 sq km. The population in 1971 was 522,000, 57 percent of which was urban. The administrative center and chief port is St. John’s. About one third of Canada’s fish catch (chiefly cod) and about 10 percent of its timber comes from Newfoundland. Mineral resources include iron (Labrador City and Wabush), lead and zinc (Buchans and Whalesback), copper (Bay de Verde), and fluorspar (St. Lawrence). The chief industries are paper and pulp (Corner Brook and Grand Falls) and fish processing. Plants at St. John’s also produce petrochemicals and transport machinery. There is a large hydroelectric power plant at Churchill Falls. Agriculture is a subsidiary branch of the economy.

In the 11th century Norsemen visited the coast of the Island of Newfoundland, and in 1497 an English expedition led by J. Cabot landed there. After a long rivalry between France and England for control over Newfoundland, the area passed to England under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The indigenous population of Indians and Eskimos was almost completely wiped out by the early 19th century. A “responsible government” was created in 1855. The second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries were marked by rapid industrial growth. In addition to the expansion of the traditional industries of fishing and logging, mining developed and railroads were built. An industrial proletariat appeared and trade unions emerged. In 1917, the Island of Newfoundland became a dominion, and in 1927 it incorporated part of the Labrador Peninsula. Between 1934 and 1949, Newfoundland was ruled by a British governor as a colony. On Mar. 31, 1949, it joined Canada as a province.

V. A. TISHKOV


Newfoundland

 

an island in the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of North America; it is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle. The island is part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland. It has an area of 111,000 sq km (according to some sources, 125,000 sq km), and in 1966 it had about 470,000 inhabitants most of whom live along the coast.

Geologically, Newfoundland is part of the Appalachian mountain system. Its surface is a gently rolling plain with residual outcrop ridges rising to 814 m. Most of the coastline is rocky and high. The island has a temperate climate, with an annual precipitation ranging from 750 mm to 1,500 mm. The average winter temperature varies from—4° to –10°C, and the mean summer temperature, from 10° to 15°C. The rivers are short and full of rapids, and there are many lakes and swamps. The soil is primarily podzolic and rocky. Coniferous forests of balsam fir, white and black spruce, and American deciduous trees with an admixture of birch are found at elevations of up to 350–400 m. At higher elevations there are tracts of tundra vegetation.


Newfoundland

 

a breed of working dog developed in Newfoundland. It is a large dog with a massive head, drooping ears, and a long, dense black coat. Height at the shoulders is 68 to 75 cm for a male and 62 to 70 cm for a female. Newfoundlands are used as guard dogs. They retrieve fishermen’s nets and rescue drowning persons. The dogs are bred primarily in the United States and in Western Europe. In the USSR a domestic breed called the Vodolaz has been developed by crossing the Newfoundland with local breeds.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Newfoundland

1. an island of E Canada, separated from the mainland by the Strait of Belle Isle: with the Coast of Labrador forms the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; consists of a rugged plateau with the Long Range Mountains in the west. Area: 110 681 sq. km (42 734 sq. miles)
2. a very large heavy breed of dog similar to a Saint Bernard with a flat coarse usually black coat
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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