On the prehistorical origin of Indonesian men, for example, this textbook completely rejects Charles Darwin's theory of evolution that has been employed by standard national historiography to underline the archeological findings at the Sangiran and Ngandong
[a] group of early humans known as the Solo People from their site of discovery on the Solo River at Ngandong
. Koeigswald's discoveries might have been more impressive still but for a tactical error that was realized too late.
In order to establish an age range for Ngandong Swisher et al.
Further faunal remains from two additional sites along the Solo River yielded similar ages to the dates Swisher acquired from Ngandong. There are two dates from a single tooth with a median range of 27 to 40 ky from Jigar, located several kilometres downstream from Ngandong, and a single date with a median age range of 32 to 53 ka obtained from Sambungmacan (Sm), which is more than 50 km upstream.
The Ngandong dates have been contested on the grounds of the reliability of the dating technique employed (Anton 2001, Grun and Thorne 1997).
Taphonomic considerations suggest that all fossils at Ngandong have been subject to at least some degree of water transport (Grun and Thorne 1997, Westaway 2002, Dennell 2005).
In Java, the Trinil and Sangiran sites contain remains dating from between 1,000,000 and 800,000 years ago, and the Ngandong
site--"Solo man"--from about 300,000 years ago, with a later morphology (see the chapter "The expansion of the humans" in volume 1).
To buttress his theory, Rightmare offers a reassessment of a group of fossil skulls and skull fragments found at the Ngandong site in central Java.
However, the Ngandong fossils -- poorly dated, but generally placed between 100,000 and 250,000 years old -- clearly fall within the range of anatomy observed in older H.
The fossil-rich terrace deposits near Ngandong were first discovered by Elbert, expedition geologist on the 1908-11 Selenka expedition, and then rediscovered by ter Haar in 1931.
The hominins from Ngandong are regarded as younger than those from Sangiran, Mo(d)jokerto and Trinil, which seems reasonable given their larger cranial capacity of ca.
The key issue concerning the Ngandong hominins is whether they share the same taphonomic history as the other mammalian fossils in the excavated deposits.