nicotine

(redirected from Nicorette)
Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia.

nicotine,

C10H14N2, poisonous, pale yellow, oily liquid alkaloidalkaloid,
any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. Although the name means alkalilike, some alkaloids do not exhibit alkaline properties.
..... Click the link for more information.
 with a pungent odor and an acrid taste. It turns brown on exposure to air. Nicotine, a naturally occurring constituent of tobacco, is the active ingredient in tobacco smoke. The amount of nicotine in tobacco leaves ranges from approximately 2% to 7%. In concentrated form, it is used as an insecticide.

Nicotine, which mimics the affects of acetylcholineacetylcholine
, a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. The transmission of an impulse to the end of the nerve causes it to release neurotransmitter molecules onto the surface of
..... Click the link for more information.
, acts primarily on the autonomic nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
..... Click the link for more information.
. In a dose of less than 50 mg, it can cause respiratory failure and general paralysis. Smaller toxic doses can cause heart palpitations, lowered blood pressure, nausea, and dizziness. A person who smokes inhales approximately 3 mg from one cigarette. This amount increases the heart rate, constricts the blood vessels, and acts on the central nervous system, imparting a feeling of alertness and well-being. Although not considered carcinogenic, nicotine probably contributes to the increased incidence of heart disease seen in smokers and may enhance the growth of tumors caused by carcinogens.

People who use tobacco products develop a physiological addiction to nicotine. Research has shown that nicotine increases the flow of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, creating pleasurable feelings and a craving to keep in the bloodstream levels of nicotine that will maintain these feelings. Lack of nicotine causes withdrawal symptoms (heart rate and blood pressure changes, sleeping problems, brain wave disturbances, and anxiety) in smokers.

Nicotine-containing chewing gums and skin patches that administer nicotine to people who are trying to cease smoking have been developed. Although the rate of absorption is slower with these methods than with smoking—smoking delivers nicotine to the brain within six seconds—and although nicotine obtained in this way does not provide the same pleasurable results as smoking, the gums and patches do help relieve some of the symptoms of withdrawal. Combining the use of patches or gum with continued smoking can result in nicotine overdose and toxicity, causing nausea, palpitations, and headache. Nicotine nasal sprays and inhalers more closely mimic the delivery and intensity of nicotine obtained by smoking. Some researchers have suggested, however, that prolonged use of nicotine replacement, especially inhalers, beyond the few months recommended to break the cigarette habit could damage cells lining the blood vessels and lungs. It is not clear if the use of nicotine replacement therapy is effective in enabling smokers to quit permanently.

See also smokingsmoking,
inhalation and exhalation of the fumes of burning tobacco in cigars and cigarettes and pipes; in the 21st cent., vaping, the similar use of e-cigarettes, also has become common. Some persons draw the smoke into their lungs; others do not.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Nicotine

 

(named after the French diplomat J. Nicot, who in 1560 was the first to introduce tobacco into France), 1-methyl-2 (3-pyridyl)-pyrrolidine, a volatile, colorless liquid alkaloid with a characteristic odor; boiling point, 247°C. Nicotine, a strong base, is readily soluble in water and organic solvents. It turns cinnammon-brown on exposure to air. It has the following structural formula:

Nicotine is present as salts of acetic, citric, and malic acids, constituting about 2 percent of the weight of Nicotiana tabacum leaves and about 8 percent of the weight of N. rustica leaves; it is also found in other plants.

Nicotine is sublimated during the smoking of tobacco. It penetrates with the smoke into the respiratory tract and, after being absorbed, acts on the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system and on the cholinergic structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The action of nicotine is two-phase: excitatory in low doses and inhibitory and causing paralysis of the nervous system, respiratory standstill, and cardiac arrest in large doses. Nicotine is one of the most toxic alkaloids; a few drops amounting to 100–200 mg—the quantity contained in 200 g of tobacco—may cause death when injected into man. Nicotine is quickly absorbed by the mucous membranes but is also quickly excreted and neutralized. However, the repeated absorption of low doses during smoking causes habituation, addiction, and chronic intoxication. Acute poisoning is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, intensified salivation, and, at times, convulsions and disturbances of hearing and vision. Medical treatment of acute nicotine poisoning is aimed at maintaining respiration, since paralysis of the respiratory center results in death.

Nicotine has long been used in pharmacological and physiological experiments. It has no therapeutic value. It is used in the form of a 40-percent aqueous solution of nicotine sulfate, in the form of a water extract from tobacco, and in the form of other preparations as an insecticide to control crop pests.

nicotine

[′nik·ə‚tēn]
(organic chemistry)
C10H14N2 A colorless liquid with a boiling point of 247.3°C; miscible with water; used as a contact insecticide fumigant in closed spaces.

nicotine

a colourless oily acrid toxic liquid that turns yellowish-brown in air and light: the principal alkaloid in tobacco, used as an agricultural insecticide. Formula: C10H14N2
References in periodicals archive ?
Only Nicorette offers a 16-hour patch that is designed to mimic smoking patterns so you can take the patch off at bedtime and avoid night-time dosing, which can exacerbate sleep disturbance in some people.
New innovations and delivery methods will drive growth, with oral dose formats such as Nicorette QuickMist and Nicabate Oral Strips expected to see the strongest performance.
The new ad, which began running on August 23, is called "Name Change," and it is designed to introduce the Nicorette Commit lozenge, which is the second nongum product added to the line this year.
The first time I ever chewed a piece of Nicorette gum one of my close friends' mother gave it to me.
Though the president dodged questions about his smoking at the start of his administration, Gibbs said he "assumed" the president still chewed the nicorette.
Sweden's VO 60, Assa Abloy, got the gun by a mere 14 minutes and 34 seconds from the short-priced, pre-race favourite Nicorette, skippered by international yachtsman Ludde Ingvall.
Nicorette was leading a fleet of 75 in the Volvo race before the tornado snapped its main sail off Australia.
Ten runners up will win a Nicorette Change Your Life goody bag which includes a Nicorette Changes T-shirt, Fresh Start guide to giving up smoking, massage oil, nail clipper, hand puzzle, Nicorette coloured inhalator mouthpieces, and a money box.
Sales of quit smoking products grew 68 per cent to pounds 112 million - with sales of anti-smoking chewing gum Nicorette up 92 per cent.
The main driver of the increase in 2015 was the innovative Nicorette Spray, which Johnson & Johnson launched in late 2013.
The product will be marketed under private labels and is comparable to GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare's Nicorette mini lozenge, which has estimated annual sales of over $30 million.
GSK remains a major force in O-T-C nicotine replacement therapy with its Nicorette, NicoDerm CQ and Commit brands.