nicotine

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Related to Nicotine patch: Nicotine replacement therapy

nicotine,

C10H14N2, poisonous, pale yellow, oily liquid alkaloidalkaloid,
any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. Although the name means alkalilike, some alkaloids do not exhibit alkaline properties.
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 with a pungent odor and an acrid taste. It turns brown on exposure to air. Nicotine, a naturally occurring constituent of tobacco, is the active ingredient in tobacco smoke. The amount of nicotine in tobacco leaves ranges from approximately 2% to 7%. In concentrated form, it is used as an insecticide.

Nicotine, which mimics the affects of acetylcholineacetylcholine
, a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. The transmission of an impulse to the end of the nerve causes it to release neurotransmitter molecules onto the surface of
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, acts primarily on the autonomic nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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. In a dose of less than 50 mg, it can cause respiratory failure and general paralysis. Smaller toxic doses can cause heart palpitations, lowered blood pressure, nausea, and dizziness. A person who smokes inhales approximately 3 mg from one cigarette. This amount increases the heart rate, constricts the blood vessels, and acts on the central nervous system, imparting a feeling of alertness and well-being. Although not considered carcinogenic, nicotine probably contributes to the increased incidence of heart disease seen in smokers and may enhance the growth of tumors caused by carcinogens.

People who use tobacco products develop a physiological addiction to nicotine. Research has shown that nicotine increases the flow of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, creating pleasurable feelings and a craving to keep in the bloodstream levels of nicotine that will maintain these feelings. Lack of nicotine causes withdrawal symptoms (heart rate and blood pressure changes, sleeping problems, brain wave disturbances, and anxiety) in smokers.

Nicotine-containing chewing gums and skin patches that administer nicotine to people who are trying to cease smoking have been developed. Although the rate of absorption is slower with these methods than with smoking—smoking delivers nicotine to the brain within six seconds—and although nicotine obtained in this way does not provide the same pleasurable results as smoking, the gums and patches do help relieve some of the symptoms of withdrawal. Combining the use of patches or gum with continued smoking can result in nicotine overdose and toxicity, causing nausea, palpitations, and headache. Nicotine nasal sprays and inhalers more closely mimic the delivery and intensity of nicotine obtained by smoking. Some researchers have suggested, however, that prolonged use of nicotine replacement, especially inhalers, beyond the few months recommended to break the cigarette habit could damage cells lining the blood vessels and lungs. It is not clear if the use of nicotine replacement therapy is effective in enabling smokers to quit permanently.

See also smokingsmoking,
inhalation and exhalation of the fumes of burning tobacco in cigars and cigarettes and pipes. Some persons draw the smoke into their lungs; others do not. Smoking was probably first practiced by the indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere.
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.

Nicotine

 

(named after the French diplomat J. Nicot, who in 1560 was the first to introduce tobacco into France), 1-methyl-2 (3-pyridyl)-pyrrolidine, a volatile, colorless liquid alkaloid with a characteristic odor; boiling point, 247°C. Nicotine, a strong base, is readily soluble in water and organic solvents. It turns cinnammon-brown on exposure to air. It has the following structural formula:

Nicotine is present as salts of acetic, citric, and malic acids, constituting about 2 percent of the weight of Nicotiana tabacum leaves and about 8 percent of the weight of N. rustica leaves; it is also found in other plants.

Nicotine is sublimated during the smoking of tobacco. It penetrates with the smoke into the respiratory tract and, after being absorbed, acts on the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system and on the cholinergic structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The action of nicotine is two-phase: excitatory in low doses and inhibitory and causing paralysis of the nervous system, respiratory standstill, and cardiac arrest in large doses. Nicotine is one of the most toxic alkaloids; a few drops amounting to 100–200 mg—the quantity contained in 200 g of tobacco—may cause death when injected into man. Nicotine is quickly absorbed by the mucous membranes but is also quickly excreted and neutralized. However, the repeated absorption of low doses during smoking causes habituation, addiction, and chronic intoxication. Acute poisoning is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, intensified salivation, and, at times, convulsions and disturbances of hearing and vision. Medical treatment of acute nicotine poisoning is aimed at maintaining respiration, since paralysis of the respiratory center results in death.

Nicotine has long been used in pharmacological and physiological experiments. It has no therapeutic value. It is used in the form of a 40-percent aqueous solution of nicotine sulfate, in the form of a water extract from tobacco, and in the form of other preparations as an insecticide to control crop pests.

nicotine

[′nik·ə‚tēn]
(organic chemistry)
C10H14N2 A colorless liquid with a boiling point of 247.3°C; miscible with water; used as a contact insecticide fumigant in closed spaces.

nicotine

a colourless oily acrid toxic liquid that turns yellowish-brown in air and light: the principal alkaloid in tobacco, used as an agricultural insecticide. Formula: C10H14N2
References in periodicals archive ?
Among the smokers who initially abstained, 83% on placebo lapsed, compared with 70% of smokers who used a nicotine patch with a lozenge, 71% on bupropion with a lozenge, 74% on bupropion alone, 73% on a lozenge alone, and 76% on a nicotine patch alone.
We conclude that nicotine patch therapy in later pregnancy has potential benefit for pregnant smokers who continue to smoke despite physician advice to stop," he said.
The study, published in the November issue of Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy, shows that people who use the 21 mg NicoDerm CQ nicotine patch every day for the first 21 days of quitting were three-times as likely of being smoke-free at the six week point in the course of treatment compared to those who do not wear their patch every day.
In our study of 21 pregnant women, the 21-mg nicotine patch seemed to deliver nicotine at an appropriate level, resulting in blood levels and urine excretions similar to those seen with moderate to heavy cigarette smoking.
All patients received the nicotine patch in tapering strengths for eight weeks.
Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web- Based Computer-Tailored Smoking Cessation Program as a Supplement to Nicotine Patch Therapy, in press, 2004.
Smokers who had tried the nicotine patch said that they had been hesitant to put the patch on because they were afraid they might relapse to smoking and then get sick from the patch.
PITTSBURGH -- GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare (GSK) has read with interest a study in the current issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) which questions the effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), including nicotine patch and gum, in an over-the-counter (OTC) setting in California.
Morton, gamekeeper Golly in the hit BBC TV series, is seen in the 20-second anti-smoking ad putting a nicotine patch on his arm as he says, "Go on, give yourself a slap".
The study took place over an 18-week period and examined 45 participants divided into three groups: one group that smoked Quest 1, 2 and 3; one group that smoked Quest 3 cigarettes while phasing out their usual brand and temporarily using a nicotine patch; and one group that smoked Quest 3 while phasing out their usual brand without wearing a nicotine patch.
Mumenthaler said pilots who smoke might chew nicotine gum or wear a nicotine patch to help them on such long flights.
Washington, July 10 (ANI): Smokers wishing to kick the butt can double their success rates by using nicotine patch before quitting smoking, say researchers at Duke University Medical Center.