The two themes (purposes) are carried throughout the book and any chapter can be cited for examples, but I have selected Chapter 15: "Nightsoil
." Information on nightsoil
is difficult to find.
Because the adult snails live above the waterline, it is clear that rainfall is an important mechanism for flushing cercaria into ditches as well as transporting eggs from the field, where they are distributed in nightsoil
, into the ditch environment, where the snails live.
In rural inland areas, often on marginal lands, small carp ponds supplemented the output from farm crops for centuries; the ponds were supplied with nutrients from an adjoining pig pen, or from other animals, ducks, food preparation, or nightsoil
. Several times a year, the ponds were cleaned out and the resulting rich bottom soil was applied to neighboring fields.
Grant, Mark Twain--I think I'll go to sleep and suddenly in my deepest inadequancy nightmares wake up haunted and see everyone in the world as unconsolable orphans yelling and screaming on every side to make arrangements for making a living yet all bespattered and gloomed-up in the nightsoil
of poor body and soul all present and accounted for as some sneakish, crafty gift, and all so lonered.
About 5,400 ( more than half in Karnataka) let loose pigs to eat human feces; and about 13,000 households ( UP again on top) simply flushed ' nightsoil
' into open drains, says the survey which has so far touched 85% of 2.51 lakh gram panchayats or nearly six lakh villages in India.
Human sewage, euphemistically called nightsoil
, when treated becomes a rich fertilizer that can be applied to agricultural fields.