Nijmegen


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Nijmegen

(nī`mā'gən), city (1994 pop. 147,018), Gelderland prov., E Netherlands, on the Waal River, near the German border. It is a rail and water transportation point and an industrial center. Its manufactures include metal products, paper, clothing, and soap. One of the oldest cities in the Netherlands, Nijmegen was founded in Roman times and flourished under CharlemagneCharlemagne
(Charles the Great or Charles I) [O.Fr.,=Charles the great], 742?–814, emperor of the West (800–814), Carolingian king of the Franks (768–814).
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 (8th–early 9th cent.). It was chartered in 1184, became a free imperial city, and later joined the Hanseatic LeagueHanseatic League
, mercantile league of medieval German towns. It was amorphous in character; its origin cannot be dated exactly. Originally a Hansa was a company of merchants trading with foreign lands.
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. It subscribed (1579) to the Union of Utrecht, formed as a defensive measure against Philip II of Spain. The treaties of Nijmegen (1678–79), which ended the Dutch War (1672–78) of Louis XIV of France, were signed there (see Dutch WarsDutch Wars,
series of conflicts between the English and Dutch during the mid to late 17th cent. The wars had their roots in the Anglo-Dutch commercial rivalry, although the last of the three wars was a wider conflict in which French interests played a primary role.
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). In World War II, Allied airborne troops wrested (Sept., 1944) Nijmegen from the Germans but failed to rescue the troops caught at ArnhemArnhem
, Ger. Arnheim, city (1994 pop. 133,670), capital of Gelderland prov., E Netherlands, a port on the Lower Rhine. It is an industrial, transportation, and tourist center. Textiles, electrical equipment, metal goods, and ships are manufactured.
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. Nijmegen has a 13th-century church (the Groote Kerk), a 16th-century town hall, a 17th-century weighhouse, and the remains of a palace built (c.777) by Charlemagne and rebuilt by Frederick Barbarossa in 1165. It is the seat of the Catholic Univ. of Nijmegen (founded 1923). The city is known in French as Nimègue and in German as Nimwegen.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Nijmegen

 

a city in the Netherlands, in Gelderland Province, on the Waal River (a branch of the Rhine). Population, 208,000 (1972). Nijmegen is a railroad and waterway junction and a commercial and industrial center. It has machine-building, electrical engineering, food-and-condiments, garment, paper, leather footwear, and chemical industries. Porcelain and faience products are also manufactured. The city has a university (founded in 1923) and museums. A Roman settlement once existed on the site of Nijmegen. From the eighth to tenth centuries the city was one of the residences of the Carolingians.

The center of a polygonal chapel and the capitals of the columns of its apse are apparently all that remains of Charlemagne’s palace, known as the Valkhof (777), in Nijmegen. Other noteworthy buildings in the city are the Gothic church of Saint Stephen (1254–1605), a Renaissance town hall (1554–55), the Netherlands Bank (1954, architect H. T. Zviers), and the State Theater (1961, architects B. Bijvoet and G. H. M. Holt).

REFERENCE

[Jong, J. A. B. M. de.] Nijmegen: Monumenten uit een rijk verleden. [Nijmegen, 1959.]
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nijmegen

an industrial town in the E Netherlands, in Gelderland province on the Waal River: the oldest town in the country; scene of the signing (1678) of the peace treaty between Louis XIV, the Netherlands, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire. Pop.: 156 000 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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