Poliakov, Nikolai Petrovich
Born Jan. 12 (24), 1843, in the village of Verkhniaia Dubinka, Saratov Province; died Mar. 10 (23), 1905, in St. Petersburg. Russian publisher and democrat.
Poliakov studied at the University of St. Petersburg and began publishing in 1865. Advised by Narodnik (Populist) associates in the Chaikovskii circle, he published chiefly books dealing with social topics. They included V. V. Bervi-Flerovskii’s The Position of the Working Class in Russia, P. L. Lavrov’s Historical Letters, and works by Spencer, Voltaire, and Hobbes.
Poliakov’s main contribution was the publication of the first Russian translation of the first volume of K. Marx’ Das Kapital (1872; translated by G. A. Lopatin and N. F. Daniel’son); thus Russia was the first country in which a translation of Das Kapital appeared. Poliakov’s publications were generally banned by the censor and many were confiscated. In addition, court proceedings were initiated against him several times. In 1873 he was compelled to liquidate his publishing house.