Simanovskii, Nikolai Petrovich
Born Feb. 4 (16), 1854, in what is now Saratov Oblast; died July 5, 1922, in Petrograd. Russian physician; founder of otorhinolaryngology as an independent scientific discipline in Russia.
Simanovskii graduated from the St. Petersburg Military Medical Academy in 1878, after which he worked at S. P. Bot-kin’s clinic. In 1886 he became a professor and in 1907 an academician of the academy. In 1893, Simanovskii founded and was appointed to the first chair and clinic of ear, nose, and throat diseases in Russia.
Simanovskii’s main works dealt with nose and throat diseases and the physiology and pathology of the upper respiratory tract. Simanovskii described an ulcerous diseased state of the mucosa in the oral cavity and throat and proposed an instrument for use in throat surgery. In 1903 he organized the St. Petersburg Scientific Society of Physicians of Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases, of which he was director until his death. Simanovskii founded a school of otorhinolaryngologists, whose proponents included V. I. Voiachek and M. F. Tsitovich.