Nipah virus

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Nipah virus,

RNA virus of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, that rarely infects humans but can cause deadly encephalitis. In humans, the virus typically incubates for 4 to 14 days before a person develops fever, headache, and other flulike symptoms. In some cases, respiratory illness, including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress, also develops. After 3 to 14 days the patient experiences drowsiness, dizziness, disorientation, mental confusion, and other symptoms of acute encephalitis; in the most severe cases the disease progresses to coma in 1 to 2 days. Depending on the outbreak, 40% to 75% of the persons known to be infected have died; some people who are infected, however, never show any significant symptoms. Patients are given supportive care; there is no treatment or vaccine for the virus. Some survivors of the disease may experience long-term neurological effects, including seizures and personality changes.

Carried by flying foxes (fruit batsfruit bat,
fruit-eating bat found in tropical regions of the Old World. It is relatively large and differs from other bats in the possession of an independent, clawed second digit; it also depends on sight rather than echo-location in maintaining orientation.
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) of the family Pteropodidae, especially those of the genus Pteropus, Nipah virus is known to infect both pigs and humans. The virus is typically transmitted to humans from something contaminated by the saliva, urine, or feces of flying foxes, or from contact with the secretions or excretions of an infected pig or human.

A relatively recently identified disease, Nipah virus infection was first diagnosed in 1999 in Malaysia, where pigs developed sometimes severe, transmissible respiratory infections when fruit trees, which attracted flying foxes, were planted among the pens on large pig farms; the virus then spread to other pigs and humans. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India. Nipah virus is closely related to Hendra virus, which is also acquired from flying foxes and causes acute respiratory infections and encephalitis in horses and humans. Hendra virus disease, which typically has a mortality of greater than 50%, has only been reported in Australia.

References in periodicals archive ?
If Rima Kallingal, who plays the real-life nurse Lini who contracted the disease while on duty, tugs at our heart, actress Parvathy excels as someone who tries to piece together the mystery behind the Nipah virus outbreak.
"Ernakulam district has enough medicines and materials for Nipah treatment," he said.
Complete nucleotide sequences of Nipah virus isolates from Malaysia.
"This has been the status ever since the Nipah virus outbreak in May.
The Nipah virus is a disease transmitted through fruit bats and that claimed the lives of several people in Kerala, India.
According to World Health Organization, the Nipah virus was first identified in 1999 after an outbreak in Malaysia and Singapore and is transmitted by bats, pigs or other animals to human.
There is no vaccination for Nipah, which has killed more than 260 people in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India in outbreaks since 1998.
CEPI, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, announced a collaboration with Profectus BioSciences and Emergent BioSolutions under which Profectus and Emergent will receive up to $25M to advance the development and manufacture of a vaccine against the Nipah virus, or NiV, a bat-borne virus that can spread to both humans and livestock.
08 : 08 PM - 23/05/2018 Manama, May 23 (BNA): The health authorities said that no cases of deadly Nipah virus had been detected in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
There is no vaccine for the Nipah virus, which can cause raging fevers, convulsions and vomiting, and kills up to 75% of people who come down with it.