Nipah virus

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Related to Nipah virus: Nipah virus encephalitis

Nipah virus,

RNA virus of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, that rarely infects humans but can cause deadly encephalitis. In humans, the virus typically incubates for 4 to 14 days before a person develops fever, headache, and other flulike symptoms. In some cases, respiratory illness, including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress, also develops. After 3 to 14 days the patient experiences drowsiness, dizziness, disorientation, mental confusion, and other symptoms of acute encephalitis; in the most severe cases the disease progresses to coma in 1 to 2 days. Depending on the outbreak, 40% to 75% of the persons known to be infected have died; some people who are infected, however, never show any significant symptoms. Patients are given supportive care; there is no treatment or vaccine for the virus. Some survivors of the disease may experience long-term neurological effects, including seizures and personality changes.

Carried by flying foxes (fruit batsfruit bat,
fruit-eating bat found in tropical regions of the Old World. It is relatively large and differs from other bats in the possession of an independent, clawed second digit; it also depends on sight rather than echo-location in maintaining orientation.
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) of the family Pteropodidae, especially those of the genus Pteropus, Nipah virus is known to infect both pigs and humans. The virus is typically transmitted to humans from something contaminated by the saliva, urine, or feces of flying foxes, or from contact with the secretions or excretions of an infected pig or human.

A relatively recently identified disease, Nipah virus infection was first diagnosed in 1999 in Malaysia, where pigs developed sometimes severe, transmissible respiratory infections when fruit trees, which attracted flying foxes, were planted among the pens on large pig farms; the virus then spread to other pigs and humans. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India. Nipah virus is closely related to Hendra virus, which is also acquired from flying foxes and causes acute respiratory infections and encephalitis in horses and humans. Hendra virus disease, which typically has a mortality of greater than 50%, has only been reported in Australia.

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References in periodicals archive ?
According to World Health Organization, the Nipah virus was first identified in 1999 after an outbreak in Malaysia and Singapore and is transmitted by bats, pigs or other animals to human.
Caption: Health authorities in Kerala are on high alert, setting up medical camps to tackle the emerging Nipah virus situation.
"The Consulate General of the Kingdom of Bahrain in Mumbai announces Nipah virus infection in Kerala, India spread by fruit bats," said a tweet.
Kerala state health minister KK Shylaja said that 10 people had died of Nipah virus and two more are in a critical condition.
08 : 08 PM - 23/05/2018 Manama, May 23 (BNA): The health authorities said that no cases of deadly Nipah virus had been detected in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Called the Nipah virus, it is listed by the ( World Health Organization as "a newly emerging zoonosis that causes severe disease in both animals and humans." A zoonosis is a disease that animals can communicate to humans.
There is no vaccine for the Nipah virus that has broken out in Kerala state.
Nipah virus is also "top of the list" of 10 priority diseases that the WHO has identified as potentials for the next major outbreak.
"In addition, the Nipah virus, which causes fatal encephalitis in up to 70% of human cases, is responsible for seasonal outbreaks in Asia with person-to-person transmission now becoming a primary mode of infection.
Despite showing no clinical signs of infection, Wigmore Hall was one of three international runners to test positive for the Nipah virus after contesting the Singapore Airlines International Cup at Kranji last month, along with Presvis and Hong Kong-trained California Memory.