systems offer good confocality and improved throughput, but they still are not test enough for some experiments because their pinholes do not allow as much light transmission as some protocols require.
In the scanning-disk-type confocal microscopes, multiple pinholes are located on a spinning Nipkow disk
. The pinholes simultaneously illuminate many points on the specimen and also filter out the unwanted scattered light originating from regions not illuminated by the focused image of the pinholes.
Systems incorporating Nipkow disks
and similar scanning head technologies are overcoming some of the problems that limited their applications in decades past.
But Stashower's explanations of Nipkow disks
, oscillite tubes, image dissectors and photoelectric chemicals bog down these anecdotes.
One useful technique replaces the single pinhole with Nipkow disks
from Technical Instrument, which contain a large number of pinholes arranged in a spiral.