Yokogawa developed its spinning disk confocal scan technology by combining a Nipkow disk
(pinhole array disk) with a microlens array disk, and released the 30 fps CSU10 confocal scanner unit in 1996.
systems offer good confocality and improved throughput, but they still are not test enough for some experiments because their pinholes do not allow as much light transmission as some protocols require.
In the scanning-disk-type confocal microscopes, multiple pinholes are located on a spinning Nipkow disk
. The pinholes simultaneously illuminate many points on the specimen and also filter out the unwanted scattered light originating from regions not illuminated by the focused image of the pinholes.
: - Confocal imaging via improved Nipkow disk
with micro lenses (Yokogawa; tunable speed 1500-5000 rpm), fixed 4-band dichroic 405 nm + 488 nm + 561 nm + 640 nm and fast filter wheel for emission at 450/50, 525/50, 605/70 and 690/50 nm : - Laser rack with solid state lasers controlled by AOTF: 405 nm, 488 nm, 561 nm, 638 nm : - Apo-chromatic corrected with fiber-coupled epifluorescence illumination including integrated high-speed shutter (TTL-controllable).
Systems incorporating Nipkow disks
and similar scanning head technologies are overcoming some of the problems that limited their applications in decades past.
But Stashower's explanations of Nipkow disks
, oscillite tubes, image dissectors and photoelectric chemicals bog down these anecdotes.
One useful technique replaces the single pinhole with Nipkow disks
from Technical Instrument, which contain a large number of pinholes arranged in a spiral.