Nippur


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Nippur

(nĭpo͝or`), ancient city of Babylonia, a N Sumerian settlement on the Euphrates. It was the seat of the important cult of the god Enlil, or Bel. Excavations at Nippur have yielded the remains of several temples that date from the middle of the 3d millennium B.C. and were later rebuilt and restored many times. Over 40,000 clay tablets found there serve as a primary source of information on Sumerian civilization. Assurbanipal erected a ziggurat in Nippur. Relics of the Persian and Parthian periods have also been unearthed at the site.

Nippur

 

(now Niffer or Nuffar), an ancient Sumerian city, northeast of modern Diwaniyah, Iraq; center of the Sumerian tribal union and seat of worship of the supreme god Enlil.

Seized by Babylonia in the 18th century B.C., Nippur later was granted autonomy. Archaeological excavations of Nippur in the middle and late 19th century permitted the partial restoration of the ancient city’s layout and architectural monuments. A canal, which is now dry, passed through the center of the city. A temple to Enlil called E-kur (The House of the Mountain) stood with a ziggurat on a hill in the northeast; both structures were rebuilt in the period from the third millennium to the end of the first millennium B.C. The most important buildings were those of the rulers Naram-Sin and Sharkalishari (second half of the third millennium B.C.), Ur-Nammu (end of the third millennium B.C.), and Ashurbanipal (seventh century B.C.). A large number of cuneiform tablets, which are presumed to have been school archives, have been found in Nippur. Most of the tablets are Sumerian literary texts, evidently copies made in the 19th and 18th centuries B.C. (the Nippur Canon texts). Also of great interest are the records of the commercial and money-lending house of Murashu (sixth century B.C.).

Nippur

an ancient Sumerian and Babylonian city, the excavated site of which is in SE Iraq: an important religious centre, abandoned in the 12th or 13th century
References in periodicals archive ?
Like other Assyriologists, he was inspired by the University of Pennsylvania's much lauded Nippur expedition.
A blue-and-white shield symbolizes a protected site, and an image of a clay writing tablet attests to the fact that such representations of the earliest writings were found on a tablet discovered in Nippur.
As the marshy lands between the southern Euphrates and Tigris rivers silted in and became inhabitable, small Sumerian villages of Caucasian peoples developed into city-states such as Ur, Eridu, Ururk, Nippur, Kish, Lagash, and Babylon.
Libraries arose in most great temples (BC 2500 Nippur, also in China, Egypt, Greece, Rome).
Miraculously the 21 days of war (20 March 10 April 2003) did not destroy any of Iraq's major ancient sites (Agargouf, Arbil, Ashur, Babylon, Borsippa, Cresiphon, Eridu, Hatra, Khorsabad, Kifal, Kish, Lagash, Larsa, Nimrud, Nineveh, Nippur, Tell Harmal, Al'Ukhaidir, Ur and Uruk).
These urban centers, such as Ur, Eridu, Nippur, and Uruk, were called city-states--independent areas with their own government and culture.
This text, from stone tablets found at Nippur, Suppar and Larsa, was known as the "Hymn to Ninkasi.
Their presence in the traditional intellectual centers across the land, such as Babylon, Borsippa, Uruk, Nippur, and Kutha, meant that they had a robust potential as agents of Assyrian propaganda within important administrative circles.
Visitors to Adab, Umm el-Hafriyat, Nippur, Larsa, and several other less well known sites in the Nasariyah area also reported significant damage (Gibson 2003; Lawler 2003; Figure 1).
Nippur V; the early dynastic to Akkadian transition, the area WF sounding at Nippur.
In other images, showing the Nippur Sulcus region, scientists see Ganymede's darker, presumably older terrain blending into brighter, younger terrain.
1860-1837), the "shepherd who makes everything abundant for Nippur," asserted, "I established justice in Nippur.