Nippur


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

Nippur

(nĭpo͝or`), ancient city of Babylonia, a N Sumerian settlement on the Euphrates. It was the seat of the important cult of the god Enlil, or Bel. Excavations at Nippur have yielded the remains of several temples that date from the middle of the 3d millennium B.C. and were later rebuilt and restored many times. Over 40,000 clay tablets found there serve as a primary source of information on Sumerian civilization. Assurbanipal erected a ziggurat in Nippur. Relics of the Persian and Parthian periods have also been unearthed at the site.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Nippur

 

(now Niffer or Nuffar), an ancient Sumerian city, northeast of modern Diwaniyah, Iraq; center of the Sumerian tribal union and seat of worship of the supreme god Enlil.

Seized by Babylonia in the 18th century B.C., Nippur later was granted autonomy. Archaeological excavations of Nippur in the middle and late 19th century permitted the partial restoration of the ancient city’s layout and architectural monuments. A canal, which is now dry, passed through the center of the city. A temple to Enlil called E-kur (The House of the Mountain) stood with a ziggurat on a hill in the northeast; both structures were rebuilt in the period from the third millennium to the end of the first millennium B.C. The most important buildings were those of the rulers Naram-Sin and Sharkalishari (second half of the third millennium B.C.), Ur-Nammu (end of the third millennium B.C.), and Ashurbanipal (seventh century B.C.). A large number of cuneiform tablets, which are presumed to have been school archives, have been found in Nippur. Most of the tablets are Sumerian literary texts, evidently copies made in the 19th and 18th centuries B.C. (the Nippur Canon texts). Also of great interest are the records of the commercial and money-lending house of Murashu (sixth century B.C.).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nippur

an ancient Sumerian and Babylonian city, the excavated site of which is in SE Iraq: an important religious centre, abandoned in the 12th or 13th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Photograph of the excavation of the Temple enclosure at Nippur, viewed from the top of Ziggurat, taken by John Henry Haynes, 15 August 1899
(35.) Before the Al-Yahudu archive there was the Murasu archive from Nippur, containing some Judean names, but nothing like the extensive documentation provided by the Al-Yahudu archive.
The aim is to explore through time the visualisation of cities, so we start with a terracotta plan of the Mesopotamian holy city of Nippur, in what is now Iraq, then travel through Renaissance cities, New World cities, Imperial cities and mega cities.
Citrus cultivation is considered to have started in Nippur (Mesopotamia) that dates back to 4000 B.C.
He argues for the earliest unit, the Nippur cubit, to be 518.5 mm.
Written in cuneiform for a Sumerian king in the 21st century B.C the ancient tablet was discovered in the late 1880's in Nippur, an ancient city of Mesopotamia that is now Iraq.
Life at the bottom of Babylonian society; servile laborers at Nippur in the 14th and 13th centuries, B.C.