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Iran: see NeyshaburNeyshabur
, city (1991 pop. 135,681), Razavi Khorasan prov., NE Iran; also called Nishapur. It is the trade center for a farm region where cotton, fruit, and grain are grown. Manufactures include food products and leather goods; turquoise is mined nearby.
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a city in northeastern Iran, in the ostan (province) of Khorasan. Population, 35,000 (1971). Linked by highway and railroad with Tehran and Meshed, Nishapur is the center of an irrigated agricultural region (cotton, olives, fruit, grapes, livestock). There are food and leather industries. Turquoise is mined nearby.

Nishapur was founded in the middle of the third century. The city’s name derives from the name of the Sassanid king Shapur I (or Shapur II). In the middle of the seventh century the city was captured by the Arabs. It was the capital of the Tahirid state in the ninth century and of the Khurasan region of the Samanid state in the tenth century. From the ninth to 12th centuries, Nishapur was one of the Middle East’s most important economic centers. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the city was a residence of the Great Seljuks. It was destroyed in 1153 by the Oghuz tribe and again in 1221 by the Mongols. Almost the entire population perished. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Nishapur was rebuilt yet did not regain its former significance. In 1722 the city suffered an Afghan invasion. The Persian and Tadzhik poet-scientist Omar Khayyam was born and died in Nishapur.

Nishapur, which consists of “old” and “new” cities, has a square grid layout, with intersecting main streets. Excavations have revealed the remains of palaces and villas from the eighth, ninth, or tenth centuries. The structures are embellished with wall paintings, stucco reliefs, and carved ornament. In the Middle Ages, Nishapur was a center for ceramic manufacture. Situated near the city is the Tomb of Omar Khayyam, a rotunda decorated with tracery (stone, glazed tiles with floral ornament and inscriptions; 1963, architect Kh. Seyhun).


Upton, M. “Excavations at Nishapur.” Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1936, vol. 31, no. 9.


a town in NE Iran, at an altitude of 1195 m (3920 ft.): birthplace and burial place of Omar Khayy?m. Pop.: 208 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
This may have been case with IranShahri's observation; in the eclipse of 873, the annular phase commenced when the Sun was at an altitude of around 5.3[degrees] above the eastern horizon in Nishabur. The observation of the 1292 eclipse in China could be an example of the second condition.
Today, his mausoleum in Nishabur is a popular tourist site.
There were many eminent teachers in Nishabur and in the other cities of Khorasan.
The story goes that Omar Khayyam, Abu Ali Tusi (1018-1092), and Hasan Sabbah (1050s-1124) were classmates in Nishabur. They promised one another that, when they grew up, if any one of them obtained a higher position he should help the other two friends with their careers.
However, it must be said that the legend of the Three Schoolmates (first mentioned in the thirteenth-century Persian history book "Jami al-Tawarikh") is just that--a legend: Nizam ul-Mulk was too old to be Khayyam's schoolmate, and Hasan Sabbah was not from Nishabur. Nevertheless, these three men were contemporaneous.
However, when he was a teenager, the governor of Khorassan Abu Mansur Mohammad son of Abdul Razzaq commissioned a group of learned Zoroastrian priests from the cities of Nishabur, Tus, Herat, and Sistan to compile a complete Shahnama in prose.
Omar Khayyam (10481031) was born in Nishabur, in northeastern Iran.
The Louvre may also join in archeological research at Nishabur in the northeastern province of Khorasan Rezavi, which could be linked to earlier digs led by the museum in Bukhara, Uzbekistan, and other sites along the Silk Road that were part of the Sassanian Empire.
According to the last census, Iran has 38 cities with populations exceeding 200,000 The smallest of that group, with a population of 206,000, is Nishabur, known is the West as Nishapur, which was rated as one of the 10 largest cities in the world in 1000 CE.