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Iran: see NeyshaburNeyshabur
, city (1991 pop. 135,681), Razavi Khorasan prov., NE Iran; also called Nishapur. It is the trade center for a farm region where cotton, fruit, and grain are grown. Manufactures include food products and leather goods; turquoise is mined nearby.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in northeastern Iran, in the ostan (province) of Khorasan. Population, 35,000 (1971). Linked by highway and railroad with Tehran and Meshed, Nishapur is the center of an irrigated agricultural region (cotton, olives, fruit, grapes, livestock). There are food and leather industries. Turquoise is mined nearby.

Nishapur was founded in the middle of the third century. The city’s name derives from the name of the Sassanid king Shapur I (or Shapur II). In the middle of the seventh century the city was captured by the Arabs. It was the capital of the Tahirid state in the ninth century and of the Khurasan region of the Samanid state in the tenth century. From the ninth to 12th centuries, Nishapur was one of the Middle East’s most important economic centers. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the city was a residence of the Great Seljuks. It was destroyed in 1153 by the Oghuz tribe and again in 1221 by the Mongols. Almost the entire population perished. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Nishapur was rebuilt yet did not regain its former significance. In 1722 the city suffered an Afghan invasion. The Persian and Tadzhik poet-scientist Omar Khayyam was born and died in Nishapur.

Nishapur, which consists of “old” and “new” cities, has a square grid layout, with intersecting main streets. Excavations have revealed the remains of palaces and villas from the eighth, ninth, or tenth centuries. The structures are embellished with wall paintings, stucco reliefs, and carved ornament. In the Middle Ages, Nishapur was a center for ceramic manufacture. Situated near the city is the Tomb of Omar Khayyam, a rotunda decorated with tracery (stone, glazed tiles with floral ornament and inscriptions; 1963, architect Kh. Seyhun).


Upton, M. “Excavations at Nishapur.” Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1936, vol. 31, no. 9.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a town in NE Iran, at an altitude of 1195 m (3920 ft.): birthplace and burial place of Omar Khayy?m. Pop.: 208 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Khayyam died on 4 December 1131 and is buried in the Khayyam Garden in Nishapur. Netizens paid tribute to Khayyam by quoting verses from his Rubaiyat.
(25.) See, for example, a waste disposal area inside the city of Nishapur which was then cleaned and renovated in late 1890; Iran (Tehran), no.
In Khorasan Razavi, which has suffered the brunt of the human losses, flooding has hit the cities of Dargaz, Quchan, Nishapur, and Kalat.
478/1084) taught at the madrasa Niamiyyah of Nishapur and among his students were al-Ghazali and 'Ali b.
The example of one Sabian secretary of Buyid Baghdad and his poetry as anthologized by a scholar of Nishapur would suggest that it was not a foregone conclusion that this family of Sabians would eventually convert to Islam.
Umar profeso (lo sabemos) la doctrina platonica y pitagorica del transito del alma por muchos cuerpos; al cabo de los siglos, la suya acaso reencarno en Inglaterra para cumplir en un lejano idioma germanico veteado de latin el destino literario que en Nishapur reprimieron las matematicas.
During the week of May 9 alone, local authorities canceled two concerts by famous Iranian musicians, who had been scheduled to perform in the city of Nishapur in Razavi Khorasan Province -- concerts that had already received the necessary permissions from the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance.
Hitherto unpublished is an almost complete set of tiny Samanid ivory chessmen from Nishapur, dated to the 10th-nth century or even earlier.