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nitric acid esterester,
any one of a group of organic compounds with general formula RCO2R′ (where R and R′ are alkyl groups or aryl groups) that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and an acid.
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 of cellulosecellulose,
chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohydrate that is a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Raw cotton is composed of 91% pure cellulose; other important natural sources are flax, hemp, jute, straw, and wood.
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 (a glucose polymer). It is usually formed by the action of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids on purified cotton or wood pulp. The extent of nitration and degradation (breaking down) of the cellulose is carefully controlled in order to obtain the desired product. When cotton is treated so that nearly all of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule are esterified, but with little or no degradation of the molecular structure, the nitrocellulose formed is called guncotton. Guncotton resembles cotton in its appearance. Extremely flammable, it explodes when detonated and is used in the manufacture of explosives. Guncotton is insoluble in such common solvents as water, chloroform, ether, and ethanol. If the nitration is not carried to completion (the point at which about two thirds of the hydroxyl groups are esterified), the soluble cellulose nitrate pyroxylinpyroxylin
, partially nitrated cellulose (see nitrocellulose). It is used in lacquers, plastics, and artificial leathers. Pyroxylin lacquers are made by dissolving pyroxylin in a mixture of volatile solvents and adding a plasticizer and a pigment or dye.
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 is formed.


(organic chemistry)

cellulose nitrate

A material formed by the reaction of cellulose fibers with nitric and sulfuric acids. Those with lower nitrogen content are used as binders in lacquers and are very inflammable. A high nitrogen content results in nitrocellulose, an explosive.
References in periodicals archive ?
All nitrate film has to be sent to a film laboratory overseas, because there are no such laboratories in Ireland at present.
The Contract covers the collection of approximately 20 000 cans of nitrate film from the Nitrate Film Stores located at Ickleton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1TA to be taken to a safe location for destruction.
The NAVCC, opening in mid 2007, will house over one million theatrical films, newsreels and television programs, in addition to educational, industrial and advertising material, including over 150,000 reels of nitrate film.
A lot of preservation work is less about searching and splicing than just transferring films from two unstable media: the flammable nitrate film that UCLA keeps at a special facility in Hollywood, and the acetate safety film that replaced it around 1950, which is stored in climate-controlled vaults on campus.
The National Screen and Sound Archive of Wales is searching for amateur film footage of a family holiday, old cans full of explosive nitrate film or a hand-cranked silent film projector.
Old nitrate film reels deteriorate with age and are highly flammable so need to be kept in carefully-controlled habitats.
Santilli claimed that the 1947 black-and-white Kodak 16mm nitrate film would be checked and authenticated by Kodak.
It makes sense that a metallic format, such as CD-ROM, will last longer than paper and certainly longer than silver nitrate film or microforms even though the CD-ROM is such a new technology that we do not really know its longevity.
92 SRP, features the slapstick team's "The Devil's Brother" and "Bonnie Scotland" (both newly-restored from original nitrate film elements), and a number of bonus features.
The Contract covers the appointment of an experienced transport company, able to transfer between 13 000 and 17 000 of nitrate film cans from the IWM Nitrate Film, located in Ickleton, nr Cambridge, to the BFI film stores, located in Gaydon, Warwickshire.
Film4, Sony BMG Film, Parallel Films and HanWay Films present A Nitrate Film and Parallel Films production of A Julien Temple Film: "The Future Is Unwritten - Joe Strummer.
But now, thanks to the find of 800 reels of ageing, nitrate film discovered in dusty, sealed barrels in a Blackburn shop's cellar, we can see the first movies of those times.