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nitric acid esterester,
any one of a group of organic compounds with general formula RCO2R′ (where R and R′ are alkyl groups or aryl groups) that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and an acid.
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 of cellulosecellulose,
chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohydrate that is a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Raw cotton is composed of 91% pure cellulose; other important natural sources are flax, hemp, jute, straw, and wood.
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 (a glucose polymer). It is usually formed by the action of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids on purified cotton or wood pulp. The extent of nitration and degradation (breaking down) of the cellulose is carefully controlled in order to obtain the desired product. When cotton is treated so that nearly all of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule are esterified, but with little or no degradation of the molecular structure, the nitrocellulose formed is called guncotton. Guncotton resembles cotton in its appearance. Extremely flammable, it explodes when detonated and is used in the manufacture of explosives. Guncotton is insoluble in such common solvents as water, chloroform, ether, and ethanol. If the nitration is not carried to completion (the point at which about two thirds of the hydroxyl groups are esterified), the soluble cellulose nitrate pyroxylinpyroxylin
, partially nitrated cellulose (see nitrocellulose). It is used in lacquers, plastics, and artificial leathers. Pyroxylin lacquers are made by dissolving pyroxylin in a mixture of volatile solvents and adding a plasticizer and a pigment or dye.
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 is formed.


(organic chemistry)

cellulose nitrate

A material formed by the reaction of cellulose fibers with nitric and sulfuric acids. Those with lower nitrogen content are used as binders in lacquers and are very inflammable. A high nitrogen content results in nitrocellulose, an explosive.
References in periodicals archive ?
All nitrate film has to be sent to a film laboratory overseas, because there are no such laboratories in Ireland at present.
Many once-famous movies have disappeared, victims of the decay of the nitrate film they were shot on.
92 SRP), with the film immaculately restored and remastered from earliest surviving nitrate film elements and original Vitaphone sound-on-disc recordings.
Not realizing the nitrate film was highly flammable, he kept the reels in his truck for a while -- while he smoked cigarettes -- and later stored them near his woodstove at home.
But, auction house Bonham's spokesperson said the seven-minute 35mm nitrate film reel only attracted one bid.
When he got it through the post, he cracked it open and found the 35mm nitrate film inside with the title "Charlie Chaplin in Zepped".
The Yorkshire Film Archive contains a single reel of nitrate film showing moving images of Queen Victoria opening Sheffield Town Hall in May, 1897.
A Film 4/Sony BMG film/Parallel Films/ HanWay Films presentation of a Nitrate Film and Parallel Films production.
A lot of preservation work is less about searching and splicing than just transferring films from two unstable media: the flammable nitrate film that UCLA keeps at a special facility in Hollywood, and the acetate safety film that replaced it around 1950, which is stored in climate-controlled vaults on campus.
The National Screen and Sound Archive of Wales is searching for amateur film footage of a family holiday, old cans full of explosive nitrate film or a hand-cranked silent film projector.
Old nitrate film reels need to be kept in controlled conditions because they deteriorate with age and become highly flammable.
Santilli claimed that the 1947 black-and-white Kodak 16mm nitrate film would be checked and authenticated by Kodak.