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salts of nitric acid, HNO3. Colorless crystalline compounds that are stable at ordinary temperatures; at high temperatures they release oxygen readily and are strong oxidizing agents (for example, 2KNO3 = 2KNO2 + O2). All nitrates are highly soluble in water.

Nitrates are produced by the action of nitric acid on metals, metal oxides, and certain salts in neutral or slightly acidic solutions by exchange reactions or by the action of NO2 on bases (nitrites are also produced by the latter reaction). The nitrates of a number of elements (sodium, potassium, and calcium) occur naturally. Of these, only deposits of sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter) are of practical importance.

Nitrates are widely used as fertilizers (sodium, potassium, ammonium, and calcium salts), in the production of explosives (ammonium and barium salts), and as mordants in dyeing (chromium, iron, aluminum, and copper salts). Ammonium nitrates and the nitrates of the alkali and alkaline-earth metals are also called saltpeters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Upriver in Iowa, Agricultural Research Service scientists Rob Malone, Tom Kaspar, and Dan Jaynes are using the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to assess how using winter rye cover crops in corn-soybean rotations could mitigate nitrate loads in field drainage water.
There is evidence high nitrates in infants can be deadly and may cause what's known as Blue Baby Syndrome.
Specifically, we will i) determine the effect of nitrate on feeding behaviour, body condition, reproduction and immunity in guppies; ii) analyse any interaction effects between nitrates and pathogens; iii) determine the role of acquired immunity in adult fish; and iv) test for maternally inherited immunity transfer in F1 offspring.
In addition to calculating average nitrate levels, we used nitrate MCL violation data from PICME to verify whether CWSs with high nitrates did in fact receive violations, and to run a sensitivity analysis on PEP data.
The new Swedish study has suggested that after eating leafy green vegetables, a source of inorganic nitrate, healthy people showcase increased efficiency of the mitochondria that power our cells.
The European Commission has released a pessimistic report on the implementation of the Nitrates Directive, despite an impressive performance by most EU countries.
LANCASTER -- A $4 million payment is being proposed to settle conflicts between state water regulators and sanitation district officials in Lancaster and Palmdale over whether enough progress is being made with orders to keep sewage off Air Force property and to clean up nitrates in groundwater.
By producing nitrates and nitrites directly, the vetch contributes usable nitrogen in a new way.
We found that withdrawal of nitrates was not associated with a significantly increased likelihood of relapsing anginal symptoms nor with hemodynamic deterioration compared to matched patients who continued to receive nitrates," Dr.
5, potassium 1, sodium 22, bicarbonate 116, chloride 14, sulphates 4, nitrates 0.
Where there is evidence that high levels of nitrates are occurring, or could be if no action is taken, farmers within the nitrate vulnerable zones will be required to take action.