Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Nitrification: Nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen cycle


Formation of nitrous and nitric acids or salts by oxidation of the nitrogen in ammonia; specifically, oxidation of ammonium salts to nitrites and oxidation of nitrites to nitrates by certain bacteria.



the microbiological conversion of ammonium salts to nitrates, the main form of nutrient nitrogen for plants. Nitrification takes place in the soil and in bodies of water. It is the final stage of the mineralization of organic nitrogen compounds, which begins with ammonification, and it is an index of soil fertility. The process is caused by chemosynthesizing nitrifying bacteria.

Nitrification proceeds in two stages. An ammonium ion is oxidized to a nitrite ion by bacteria of the first stage, and then the nitrite ion is oxidized to a nitrate ion by bacteria of the second stage. Nitrification takes place at a soil pH of 5–9 and is carried out by aerobic organisms. An insufficiency of air in the soil leads to cessation of nitrification. Proper soil management improves aeration, thus intensifying nitrification.

As a result of the increasing combustion of fuel in industrial plants and internal-combustion engines, nitrogen oxides are formed in the atmosphere and are deposited in large amounts in the soil and in the water of reservoirs with rainfall. They are then converted to nitrates by the action of nitrifying bacteria. The excess concentration of nitrates in water makes it unsuitable for drinking. To prevent large-scale formation of nitrates in water, chemical preparations that prevent nitrification in the soil are sometimes used.


References in periodicals archive ?
Assessment of nitrogen losses from urea and garden galore with and without nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide applied to lettuce under glasshouse conditions.
Furthermore, the alkalinity of the influent was increased to meet the nitrification demand.
For example, a urine nitrification reactor is currently in operation in Nairobi/Kenya to treat urine collected by the organisation Sanergy.
Nitrification process decreased from 70% in first load to 45% in the second load by decreasing the HRT.
Since the air-diffuser position resulted in the formation of aerobic or anoxic zone, the performance of nitrogen removal through SND might be compared to the separated reactions of nitrification and denitrification.
These compounds from root exudates of potentially allelopathic plant species inhibit the activity of AMO (ammonia mono- oxygenase) and HAO (hydroxylamine oxidoreductase), the two bacterial enzymes responsible for catalysis of nitrification reactions in soil (Subbarao et al.
The strain for nitrification of ammonia in the oligotrophic environment has not been reported at low temperature.
So by controlling high rates of soil nitrification process nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) can be improved.
Dissolved oxygen for nitrification is achieved through the use of high-volume blowers and an underwater aeration grid at the bottom of the cell.
Key words: nitrification inhibition, encapsulated calcium carbide, acetylene, ethylene, nitrate leaching, denitrificationWhy nitrification inhibition Amongst the nutrients, nitrogen (N) is most limiting to growth and yield parameters of a crop.
attached to the soil particle as well that again can contribute to the nitrification.