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nitric acid esterester,
any one of a group of organic compounds with general formula RCO2R′ (where R and R′ are alkyl groups or aryl groups) that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and an acid.
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 of cellulosecellulose,
chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohydrate that is a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Raw cotton is composed of 91% pure cellulose; other important natural sources are flax, hemp, jute, straw, and wood.
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 (a glucose polymer). It is usually formed by the action of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids on purified cotton or wood pulp. The extent of nitration and degradation (breaking down) of the cellulose is carefully controlled in order to obtain the desired product. When cotton is treated so that nearly all of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule are esterified, but with little or no degradation of the molecular structure, the nitrocellulose formed is called guncotton. Guncotton resembles cotton in its appearance. Extremely flammable, it explodes when detonated and is used in the manufacture of explosives. Guncotton is insoluble in such common solvents as water, chloroform, ether, and ethanol. If the nitration is not carried to completion (the point at which about two thirds of the hydroxyl groups are esterified), the soluble cellulose nitrate pyroxylinpyroxylin
, partially nitrated cellulose (see nitrocellulose). It is used in lacquers, plastics, and artificial leathers. Pyroxylin lacquers are made by dissolving pyroxylin in a mixture of volatile solvents and adding a plasticizer and a pigment or dye.
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 is formed.


(organic chemistry)

cellulose nitrate

A material formed by the reaction of cellulose fibers with nitric and sulfuric acids. Those with lower nitrogen content are used as binders in lacquers and are very inflammable. A high nitrogen content results in nitrocellulose, an explosive.
References in periodicals archive ?
as much as 50 percent better than conventional nitrocellulose lacquers.
Industrial furniture coatings are largely based on conventional technologies like acid catalyzed conversion varnishes and nitrocellulose lacquers.
It is the same precatalyzed lacquer that sister company American of Martinsville applies to hotel and motel furniture and is much more durable than the nitrocellulose lacquers commonly used, Fonville says.
In terms of wood finishing, 43% say they use high-solids coatings, 35% use water-based finishes, 33% use nitrocellulose lacquers, 32% use pigmented paints, and 8% use UV-curable coatings.
We believe that the old formulations of low solid, cold spray nitrocellulose lacquers with 24 percent solids will be regulated off the market," said Austin.
One concern of Greig's was that the waterborne system would be harder to work with than traditional nitrocellulose lacquers, a fear that proved to be largely unfounded.
The fast-drying, high solids system offers toughness, chemical and print resistance combined with the depth and appearance properties associated with high quality nitrocellulose lacquers.