Nitrogen Chlorides

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Nitrogen Chlorides

 

chlorine derivatives of ammonia (inorganic chloramines), specifically, monochloramine, NH2Cl, dichloramine, NHCl2, and trichloramine (nitrogen trichloride), NCl3. The chlorides of nitrogen are formed in the reaction of ammonia or ammonium salts with chlorine or hypochlorous acid.

Monochloramine is a colorless, oily liquid, with a strong odor and a melting point of –60°C. It decomposes upon heating. Dichloramine has not been isolated in the free state.

Trichloramine is a bright yellow, oily liquid, with a pungent, irritating odor, a density of 1.653 g/cm3, a melting point of –40°C, and a boiling point of 71°C. Under the action of light, it slowly decomposes, with the liberation of nitrogen and chlorine. It is soluble in benzene, carbon disulfide, and chloroform but insoluble in water. Trichloramine is sensitive to impact and is highly explosive upon contact with organic compounds that are capable of chlorination, for example, rubber, cork, fats, and turpentine.

The chlorides of nitrogen are hydrolyzed, with the formation of ammonia and hypochlorous acid.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.