Nitromethane


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nitromethane

[¦nī·trō′meth‚ān]
(organic chemistry)
CH3NO2 A liquid nitroparaffin compound; oily and colorless; boils at 101°C; used as a monopropellant for rockets, in chemical synthesis, and as an industrial solvent for cellulosics, resins, waxes, fats, and dyestuffs.

Nitromethane

 

CH3NO2, the simplest aliphatic nitro compound; a colorless liquid with an odor of bitter almonds. Boiling point, 101.2°C; density, 1.138 g/cm3 (20°C).

Nitromethane is soluble in water and is miscible with ordinary organic solvents (except paraffins); it forms an azeotrope with water (boiling point, 83.6°C; 76.4 percent nitromethane). It condenses readily with aldehydes, ketones, and ethylene oxide. For example, the reaction with formaldehyde is

CH3NO2 + CH2O → HOCH2CH2NO2

In industry, nitromethane is usually produced by degradative nitration of propane. It is used mainly as a solvent (for example, for cellulose ester varnishes and vinyl polymers), for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons, and in the production of chloropicrin and a number of explosives. Nitromethane is poisonous; its maximum permissible concentration in the air in working areas is 0.01 percent.

References in periodicals archive ?
A three-neck flask was utilized to dissolve iron chloride (11.05 g, 66.08 mmol) in dry chloroform (100 mL) and nitromethane (50 mL) under a continuous flow of nitrogen at 0[degrees]C.
Due to this fact we assume that graphite oxide (in CNT0.099/ GNP0.001, CNT0.05/GNP0.05, and GNP0.1)) is formed during samples preparation, for example, during sonication with nitromethane (NM) solvent and CNT.
Think of it like adding nitromethane to the gas tank of a poorly maintained 1972 Ford Pinto.
Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), /V.A'-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), nitromethane, and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were purchased from Chinasun (Enox) Specialty Chemicals, Jiangsu, China.
The amount of quenching was changed by the addition of 0 to 12 drops of a 1:10 dilution (by volume) of nitromethane in ethanol.
All four experiments were conducted using an explosive charge of nitromethane and a carefully controlled backfill of Socorro plaster sand.
Hambourger, "Condensation of aromatic aldehydes with nitromethane in the presence of alcoholic sodium hydroxide," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.
This method depends on the determination of retention indices (!) for five solutes, namely, benzene, ethanol, methyl ethyl ketone, nitromethane, and pyridine, on SE-30 as non polar stationary phase and then on the modified stationary phases to be characterized.
A thermochemical evaluation of TEA mixed with hydrocarbon solvents hexane, methanol, aniline, nitromethane, and nitropropane was performed with the oxidizers liquid oxygen (LOX), nitrogen tetroxide (NTO, [N.sub.2][O.sub.4]), nitrous oxide ([N.sub.2]O), liquefied air, and nitric acid (HN[O.sub.3]) using the NASA Lewis Code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA2) [14].
The electrochemical investigations were conducted by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) in acetonitrile (ACN), dimethylformamide (DMF), propylene carbonate (PC), or nitromethane (NM), solvents commonly used for electrochemical measurements, aiming to draw some conclusions in the solvent effects on the chemosensors chelating ability.
(2010) evaluated the solvating power of toluene, tetrahydrofuran, acetone and nitromethane for a polymer since it depends on their solubility parameter and observed the effect on the particles morphology, taking into consideration that the addition of compressed C[O.sub.2] to a polymer solution would increase the difference in the solubility parameter between the solvent and polymer.
Pandey, "Selective fluorescence quenching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by nitromethane within room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate," Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.