Nitrophenols

(redirected from Nitrophenol)
Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia.

Nitrophenols

 

products of the substitution of nitro groups, —NO2, for the hydrogen atoms in the phenol ring, C6H5OH. The nitrophenols shown in Table 1 are of commercial significance.

Table 1. Properties of commercial nitrophenols
 Melting pointC)Density (g/cm3)
*Temperature (°C)
o-Nitrophenol...................44.91.29 (40)*
p-Nitrophenol...................1141.48 (20)
2,4-Dinitrophenol.................1131.68 (24)
2,4,6-Trinitrophenol ...............122.51.76(20)

Nitrophenols are crystalline substances. In industry, ortho- and para-nitrophenols are produced by heating the corresponding nitrochlorobenzenes with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide; 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-D) is obtained in an analogous manner from 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. These nitrophenols are blood poisons, but they also act on the nervous system and irritate the mucous membranes and skin, leading to dermatitis and chronic eczema. For example, the maximum permissible concentration of 2,4-D in air in work areas is 0.05 mg/m3. The main use of ortho- and para-nitrophenols is in the production of ortho- and para-aminophenols. Picric acid, sulfur black dye, and 2,4-diaminophenol (amidol developer) are produced from 2,4-D; it is also used as a herbicide.

Picric acid, or 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (2,4,6-T), was used as a yellow dye for silk (the first synthetic organic dye) and as an explosive (melinite and lyddite); it is poisonous, and its maximum permissible concentration in air in work areas is 1 mg/m3. With metals, 2,4,6-T forms dangerously explosive, easily flammable salts called picrates.

REFERENCE

Orlova, E. Iu. Khimiia i tekhnologiia brizantnykh vzryvchatykh ve-shchestv, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1973.

D. A. GUREVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
Nitrophenol compounds have wide applications in various medical, chemical, and poison production industries.
Nitrophenols are common components of industrial effluents and have been detected in urban and agricultural waste.
According to the results obtained by our earlier studies [28] the degradation rates of some other nitrophenols in the Fenton reaction were significantly higher when relatively higher [Fe.
Degradation of aqueous nitrophenols and nitrobenzene by means of the Fenton reaction.
Hereditary HbM NADH-MetHb reductase deficiency Acquired Medications Amyl nitrite Benzocaine Dapsone Lidocaine Nitroglycerin Nitroprusside Phenacetin Phenazopyridine Prilocaine Quinones (chloroquinone, primaquine) Sulfonamides (sulfanilamide, sulfathiazide, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole) Chemical agents Aniline dye derivatives (shoe dyes, inks) Butyl nitrite Chlorobenzene Nitrate-containing foods Isobutyl nitrite Naphthalene Nitrophenol Nitrous gases Silver nitrate Trinitrotoluene Well water nitrates Pediatric Decreased NADH-MetHb reductase activity (<4 months of age) Associated with low birth weight, prematurity, dehydration, acidosis, and diarrhea Table 3.
Effect of buffers on molar absorptivity of 4 nitrophenol and pancreatic [alpha]-amylase activity at pH 7.
AOPs are suited for destroying dissolved organic contaminants such as halogenated hydrocarbons (trichloroethane, trichloroethylene), aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene--BTEX), pentachlorophenol (PCP), nitrophenols, detergents, pesticides, etc.
Oxidation of nitrophenols with ozone and ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide and/or UV radiation was also studied by Trapido et al.
Degradation of nitrophenols by ozone combined with UV-radiation and hydrogen peroxide.