Nitrosation


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Nitrosation

 

replacement of a hydrogen atom in organic compounds by a nitroso group, —N═O. Nitroso compounds, R—N═O, nitrosoamines, RRʹN—N═0, and oximes are formed as a result of nitrosation. For example;

RRʹCHNO2 → RRʹC(NO2)NO

Nitrosating agents, include nitrous acid, HNO2; its esters, RONO; nitrosyl chloride, NOCl; and nitrogen oxides. The active agent in nitrosation is the nitrosonium cation, NO+, which is formed, for example, upon action of strong acids on nitrosating agents.

Nitrosation is used in industry for the production of cyclohex-anone oxime (an intermediate in the production of caprolactam) and of α-diketones and α-amino acids.

Nitrosation was first accomplished by V. Meyer.

References in periodicals archive ?
The nitrosation and nitration reactions of NO occur in an OS that appears in elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Additionally, nitrosation of 1-aminonaphthalene by using NaN[O.sub.2] in the presence of HCl afforded the corresponding diazonium salt of naphthalen-1-amine 5.
Caption: Figure 3: Arecoline can be formed as AN-specific nitrosamine substances (areca-specific N-nitrosamines) by nitrosation reaction in the human body [16].
This method is called "direct" because it performs three steps nitrosation, reduction and diazotization in a single operation.
In the stomach, nitrite reacts with amines and amides; therefor stomach is exposed to the risk of endogenous N-nitroso compound synthesis, as stomach acid reacts with catalyses nitrosation. High nitrate intake has been found to be associated with gastric cancer in England, Colombia, Chile, Japan, Denmark, Hungary, and Italy [8].
Relative role of heme nitrosylation and beta-cysteine 93 nitrosation in the transport and metabolism of nitric oxide by hemoglobin in the human circulation.
DNA damage by nitrosation, deamination and oxidation.
As saliva can be easily obtained, tested and monitored for its antioxidants, nitrosation products, oxidized DNA, proteins, etc) therefore, using this marker one can help plan an early intervention, with local therapeutic agents acting as antioxidants that can be easily applied to the mucosa.
Nitrosation of piperine using different nitrosatin agents: characterization and mutagenicity of the products.
The first stage in the reduction of 1,1-dinitroethane and fluorodinitromethane in strongly acidic solution was a two-electron C-N bond rupture process, the subsequent stages of the reaction being determined by the relative rates of the competing processes of protonation, nitrosation, and Neff reaction [13].
These processes include nitrosation, or the conversion of some substances found in foods or contaminated water into carcinogens.