Nivkh

Nivkh

 

(in prerevolutionary literature, Giliak), a people living in the region of the lower Amur basin (Khabarovsk Krai, RSFSR) and on Sakhalin Island. Population, 4,400 (1970 census). They speak Nivkh.

The Nivkh are probably direct descendants of the earliest Neolithic population of the Amur basin and the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. Until the October Revolution of 1917, the economy of the Nivkh was based on fishing and seal hunting. The only domesticated animal was the dog. The Nivkh have retained a considerable number of vestiges of primitive clan and tribal relations. Most of the Nivkh were officially counted as Eastern Orthodox, but in fact ancient religious conceptions and shamanism predominated among them. In the Soviet era the Nivkh were brought together on collective farms, where new economic pursuits—agriculture and livestock raising—are developing alongside the traditional sectors. There is a national intelligentsia.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956. (Bibliography.)
Taksami, Ch. M. Vozrozhdenie nivkhskoi narodnosti. Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 1959.

Nivkh

 

(Giliak), the language of the Nivkh people. Spoken in the region of the lower Amur River and on Sakhalin Island. The number of speakers is 4,000 (1970 census).

Nivkh is usually classified as a Paleosiberian language. Its genetic ties have not been conclusively established. There are two dialects, Sakhalin and Amur. Nivkh is an agglutinative language of the prefixal-suffixal type, with features of consonantal inflexion. It has a complex system of regular vowel alternations. Nouns and pronouns have eight cases. Words indicating the qualitative features of objects are part of the verb system. There are 30 categories of cardinal numbers. The verbs have categories of voice, mood, and modes of action. Transitive verbs with a pronomial object indicator incorporate the direct object. The language also has adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, words of spatial orientation, and metaphorical words.

REFERENCES

Kreinovich, E. A. Fonetika nivkhskogo (giliatskogo) iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Panfilov, V. Z. Grammatika nivkhskogo iazyka, parts 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962–65.

E. A. KREINOVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
luxi, from the Nivkh people on the Sakhalin Island (Far East Russia), collected during expedition in 1928 (29).
Moseten (Isolate, Bolivia): abstract noun + patient + temporal location + location Nivkh (Isolate, Sakhalin Island): location + result Torotan (Austronesian, Sulawesi): patient + location
Languages like Nivkh (Matissen & Drossard 1998) and West Greenlandic (Fortescue 1984, Sadock 2003) apparently have rigid classes of nouns and verbs, as well as a class of lexemes that can be used as both.
Ellos son tambien denominados nivkh (que significa persona), y suman actualmente unos 1.
For example, in my sample (see Appendix) Bambara, Georgian, Hixkaryana, Lango, Nivkh, Imbabura Quechua, Tsou, Turkish and West Greenlandic are all examples of languages without a distinct class of definite articles.
A challenge for typologists is to make their work accessible and interesting to the reader unversed in Mordvin, Aari, or Nivkh, for whom the sheer range of unfamiliar languages may seem simply bewildering.
The 54 languages include the following: Abaza, Aghul, Akhvakh, Aleut, Alutor, Andi, Archi, Bagvalal, Bezhta, Botlikh, Chamalal, Chukchee, Chulym, Dolgan, Enets, Even, Evenki, Godoberi, Hinukh, Hunzib, Itelmen, Izhorian, Kaitag, Karata, Kerek, Ket, Khanty, Khvarshi, Koryak, Kubachi, Mansi, Nanai, Negidal, Nenets, Nganasan, Nivkh, Oroch, Orok, Rutul, Sami, Selkup, Shor, Tat, Tindi, Tofa, Tsakhur, Tsez, Udege, Ulchi, Vepsian, Votian, Yug, Yukaghir, and Yupik.
Today, only the following groups, all sedentary, continue to live mainly by fishing and hunting: the Inuit or Eskimos of the American Arctic, the Chukchi and the Koriak of the coasts of the Euro-Siberia Arctic (those living inland herd reindeer), and some of the people living on the shores of the Okhotsk Sea (the Itelmen of Kamchatka, the Ainu of Hokkaido, the Kurilskiye Ostrova [Kuril islands] and southern Sakhalin, the Quilaks or Nivkh of northern Sakhalin and the mouth of the Amur, the Oroche of easternmost Russia, and the Evenes of the northern shores of the Okhotsk Sea).
Three papers on Japanese account for roughly one-quarter of the bulk of this collection of eleven studies by as many authors; others treat Nivkh, Evenki, Turkish, Sinhala, Tagalog, Georgian, and Balochi, along with (in the final paper), "many languages.
In this connection, Sangi makes one very sharp observation not simply as a Nivkh, well acquainted with the atmosphere of seaside hunting life, but also as a sensitive word-artist.
Grant shows that by the 1990s many Nivkh supported the Soviet state effort at modernization and identified themselves as Soviet first and Nivkh second.
Noting the Anglo-Western bias in sociolinguistics, the 19 essays in this volume consider lesser-known sociolinguistic systems from Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, South America, the European Mediterranean, and Slavic regions, as well as specific speech communities, such as those speaking Nivkh, Jamaican Creole, North Saami, Gaelic, and Yugtun and Yup'ik, and the key sociolinguistic aspects of each region or community, such as gender, politeness strategies, speech patterns, variation, writing practices, and the effects of social hierarchy on language, focusing on differences from mainstream sociolinguistic theories.