Nivkh

Nivkh

 

(in prerevolutionary literature, Giliak), a people living in the region of the lower Amur basin (Khabarovsk Krai, RSFSR) and on Sakhalin Island. Population, 4,400 (1970 census). They speak Nivkh.

The Nivkh are probably direct descendants of the earliest Neolithic population of the Amur basin and the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. Until the October Revolution of 1917, the economy of the Nivkh was based on fishing and seal hunting. The only domesticated animal was the dog. The Nivkh have retained a considerable number of vestiges of primitive clan and tribal relations. Most of the Nivkh were officially counted as Eastern Orthodox, but in fact ancient religious conceptions and shamanism predominated among them. In the Soviet era the Nivkh were brought together on collective farms, where new economic pursuits—agriculture and livestock raising—are developing alongside the traditional sectors. There is a national intelligentsia.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956. (Bibliography.)
Taksami, Ch. M. Vozrozhdenie nivkhskoi narodnosti. Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 1959.

Nivkh

 

(Giliak), the language of the Nivkh people. Spoken in the region of the lower Amur River and on Sakhalin Island. The number of speakers is 4,000 (1970 census).

Nivkh is usually classified as a Paleosiberian language. Its genetic ties have not been conclusively established. There are two dialects, Sakhalin and Amur. Nivkh is an agglutinative language of the prefixal-suffixal type, with features of consonantal inflexion. It has a complex system of regular vowel alternations. Nouns and pronouns have eight cases. Words indicating the qualitative features of objects are part of the verb system. There are 30 categories of cardinal numbers. The verbs have categories of voice, mood, and modes of action. Transitive verbs with a pronomial object indicator incorporate the direct object. The language also has adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, words of spatial orientation, and metaphorical words.

REFERENCES

Kreinovich, E. A. Fonetika nivkhskogo (giliatskogo) iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Panfilov, V. Z. Grammatika nivkhskogo iazyka, parts 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962–65.

E. A. KREINOVICH

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(39) In the case of Korean, he referred to ancient similarities between the Korean and Nivkh (40) languages.
Cluster 2 (Circumpolar Eurasia): Eastern Sami; Ainu; Dolgan; Sym Evenki; Nganasan; Enets; Negidals; Mansi; Tundra Nenets; Southern Selkup; Northern Selkup; Ket, Yug; Eastern Khanty (Ostyaks); Northern Khanty; Nivkh; Far East Evenki; Nanai; Udihe; Oroch; Yukaghir; Evens (Lamuts); Baikal Evenki; Western Evenki; Yakut; Wotians; Sorbs;
The two rounds featured problems about Gilbertese, Northern and Central Pame, Albanian, Palauan, Vietnamese, the N'ko script, Menya, Chalcatongo Mixtec, Sinhalese, Nivkh, Fijian, Tamil, Beja, as well as more computational problems such as synchronic context-free grammars and tokenization, semantic ambiguities, phonological assimilation, and shift-reduce parsers.
luxi, from the Nivkh people on the Sakhalin Island (Far East Russia), collected during expedition in 1928 (29).
Moseten (Isolate, Bolivia): abstract noun + patient + temporal location + location Nivkh (Isolate, Sakhalin Island): location + result Torotan (Austronesian, Sulawesi): patient + location
Languages like Nivkh (Matissen & Drossard 1998) and West Greenlandic (Fortescue 1984, Sadock 2003) apparently have rigid classes of nouns and verbs, as well as a class of lexemes that can be used as both.
For example, in my sample (see Appendix) Bambara, Georgian, Hixkaryana, Lango, Nivkh, Imbabura Quechua, Tsou, Turkish and West Greenlandic are all examples of languages without a distinct class of definite articles.
A challenge for typologists is to make their work accessible and interesting to the reader unversed in Mordvin, Aari, or Nivkh, for whom the sheer range of unfamiliar languages may seem simply bewildering.
The 54 languages include the following: Abaza, Aghul, Akhvakh, Aleut, Alutor, Andi, Archi, Bagvalal, Bezhta, Botlikh, Chamalal, Chukchee, Chulym, Dolgan, Enets, Even, Evenki, Godoberi, Hinukh, Hunzib, Itelmen, Izhorian, Kaitag, Karata, Kerek, Ket, Khanty, Khvarshi, Koryak, Kubachi, Mansi, Nanai, Negidal, Nenets, Nganasan, Nivkh, Oroch, Orok, Rutul, Sami, Selkup, Shor, Tat, Tindi, Tofa, Tsakhur, Tsez, Udege, Ulchi, Vepsian, Votian, Yug, Yukaghir, and Yupik.
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