Nivkh

Nivkh

 

(in prerevolutionary literature, Giliak), a people living in the region of the lower Amur basin (Khabarovsk Krai, RSFSR) and on Sakhalin Island. Population, 4,400 (1970 census). They speak Nivkh.

The Nivkh are probably direct descendants of the earliest Neolithic population of the Amur basin and the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. Until the October Revolution of 1917, the economy of the Nivkh was based on fishing and seal hunting. The only domesticated animal was the dog. The Nivkh have retained a considerable number of vestiges of primitive clan and tribal relations. Most of the Nivkh were officially counted as Eastern Orthodox, but in fact ancient religious conceptions and shamanism predominated among them. In the Soviet era the Nivkh were brought together on collective farms, where new economic pursuits—agriculture and livestock raising—are developing alongside the traditional sectors. There is a national intelligentsia.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956. (Bibliography.)
Taksami, Ch. M. Vozrozhdenie nivkhskoi narodnosti. Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 1959.

Nivkh

 

(Giliak), the language of the Nivkh people. Spoken in the region of the lower Amur River and on Sakhalin Island. The number of speakers is 4,000 (1970 census).

Nivkh is usually classified as a Paleosiberian language. Its genetic ties have not been conclusively established. There are two dialects, Sakhalin and Amur. Nivkh is an agglutinative language of the prefixal-suffixal type, with features of consonantal inflexion. It has a complex system of regular vowel alternations. Nouns and pronouns have eight cases. Words indicating the qualitative features of objects are part of the verb system. There are 30 categories of cardinal numbers. The verbs have categories of voice, mood, and modes of action. Transitive verbs with a pronomial object indicator incorporate the direct object. The language also has adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, words of spatial orientation, and metaphorical words.

REFERENCES

Kreinovich, E. A. Fonetika nivkhskogo (giliatskogo) iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Panfilov, V. Z. Grammatika nivkhskogo iazyka, parts 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962–65.

E. A. KREINOVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
luxi, from the Nivkh people on the Sakhalin Island (Far East Russia), collected during expedition in 1928 (29).
For example, in my sample (see Appendix) Bambara, Georgian, Hixkaryana, Lango, Nivkh, Imbabura Quechua, Tsou, Turkish and West Greenlandic are all examples of languages without a distinct class of definite articles.
Three papers on Japanese account for roughly one-quarter of the bulk of this collection of eleven studies by as many authors; others treat Nivkh, Evenki, Turkish, Sinhala, Tagalog, Georgian, and Balochi, along with (in the final paper), "many languages.
In this connection, Sangi makes one very sharp observation not simply as a Nivkh, well acquainted with the atmosphere of seaside hunting life, but also as a sensitive word-artist.
If we proceed from these observations by the Nivkh writer, of whose reliability and sincerity there can be no doubt, then the whole artistic thrust of the story "Piebald Dog Running Along the Shore" apparently becomes very unstable.
Clearly, from this perspective, the most important thing to the writer was not the degree to which these circumstances correspond to local reality, but the exceptional nature and the hopelessness of the situation in which the Nivkh hunters find themselves.
Grant shows that by the 1990s many Nivkh supported the Soviet state effort at modernization and identified themselves as Soviet first and Nivkh second.
Despite the savage killing of Nivkhi men during the purges in 1937-38, World War If brought Nivkh women into the work world while their men fought at the front, A darker side of Stalin's rule is shown in the slave labour of political prisoners who built a railroad on Sakhalin and had unsuccessfully constructed an underground tunnel to the mainland by Stalin's death in 1953
Nivkhi told harrowing tales of Soviets ruining traditional native life with less than 10 per cent of the Nivkhs knowing their native language, where the Nivkhs worked mainly in poorly paid menial jobs and suffered housing discrimination.
The Causee can take two forms in Evenki and Nivkh without any necessary changes in the semantics of the Causee-role.
Cases similar to those in (43) and (44) are also attested in Evenki and Nivkh (see [20] and [21]).
cites Nivkh and Evenki resultatives from the verb 'to cry' with the meaning 'to be tear-stained,' and from Hausa, a resultative from the verb 'to work' which means 'to be tired from work.