Nizhni Novgorod


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Nizhni Novgorod

a city and port in central Russia, at the confluence of the Volga and Oka Rivers: situated on the Volga route from the Baltic to central Asia; birthplace of Maxim Gorki. Pop.: 1 288 000 (2005 est.)

Nizhni Novgorod

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The great medieval fair held at Nizhni Novgorod, Russia, began in the 16th century at the monastery of St. Macarius, a popular place of pilgrimage. It grew so large that the little town of Makaraev could barely accommodate it, and when it burned to the ground in 1816, it was relocated to a new town that had been built expressly to house it. The new city was located on the sandy plains where the Oka and Volga rivers flower together, making it an ideal spot for international trade. It was called Nizhni Novgorod or "Lower New City."
Nizhni Novgorod was largely a barter fair and entirely a market of direct trade, where no merchant placed orders for goods he could not inspect. Everything sold was displayed there, including cloth, furs, hides, cotton, iron, and half-wild horses. Although the height of the fair was in August, caravans and sailboats began to arrive in June. The bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church officially opened the fair with a solemn service on July 15th, but the real fair couldn't begin until the tea boats arrived, having sailed up the Volga River at the end of their 7,000-mile journey from China. Once the price of tea was determined, the prices of all the other goods was set and the trading began in earnest. This usually occurred during the first few days of August.
More than 200,000 traders took up residence in Nizhni Novgorod for the duration of the fair, and they spent most of their time smoking and drinking tea and making verbal agreements that they sealed with a handshake. By 1900, the fair was doing business worth more than $100 million a year. But during several periods—the Revolution in 1917, civil wars, and periods of famine—desperate Russians from nearby cities went down to the deserted fair and dismantled the stone and brick buildings to get at their wooden window and door frames, which they burned to stay warm.
The Soviet government under Lenin reopened the fair in 1923, but seven years later the Stalin regime abolished all 18,000 Russian fairs because they were not a part of the Kremlin-controlled trade program. The fairgrounds reopened in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It has been modernized and now hosts major exhibition events year-round.
CONTACTS:
Russian Embassy
2650 Wisconsin Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007
202-298-5700; fax: 202-298-5735
www.russianembassy.org
SOURCES:
BkFairs-1939, p. 188
References in periodicals archive ?
Degradation processes and their influence on fracture toughness of pipe steel in long operation, Collection of works of a scientific-practical seminar "Problems of ageing of steel of transmission pipelines", Nizhni Novgorod, 23-25 January, 197-211 (in Russian).
Influence of ageing on operational properties of steels of gas transmission pipelines, Collection of works of a scientific-practical seminar "Problems of ageing of steel of transmission pipelines", Nizhni Novgorod, 23-25 January, 18-57 (in Russian).
Role of grain borders in processes of ageing of steels and alloys, Collection of works of a scientific-practical seminar "Problems of ageing of steel of transmission pipelines", Nizhni Novgorod, 23-25 January, 80-85 (in Russian).
Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Russia, 603950, Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarina Avenue, 23
Erofeeva, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Russia, 603950, Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarina Avenue, 23
Table 1: Traffic intensity in studied areas of the city of Nizhni Novgorod here B.
Vestnik of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 2(2): 76-78.
Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarina Avenue, 23, 603950, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia
Nizhni Novgorod, the state university, has announced that it is using Cisco Aironet wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to create the first university WiFi zone in Russia.
Nizhni Novgorod State University (NNSU) is one of the most advanced Russian universities, adept at using modern information technologies to further the process of education.
By the end of 2003 the Bank realized its credit programs for population in 14 regions of the country: the Bank's representations are opened in Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Kazan, Volgograd, Ekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Samara, Cheljabinsk, Rostov-on-Don, Barnaul, Ufa, Perm and Nizhni Novgorod.
GAZ, with headquarters in Nizhni Novgorod, will use I-DEAS(TM) software extensively in the development and refinement of its 1.