Arthritic pain is both nociceptive, resulting from the irritation of sensory nociceptors
responsible for the detection of potentially noxious stimuli, and neuropathic, resulting from a malfunction in the somatosensory nervous system (33).
Trigeminocervical complex (TCC) includes the pseudounipolar trigeminal ganglion that has central afferent projections to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis in the medullary spinal cord, and a peripheral projection, largely from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal ganglion, which innervates the cranial blood vessels and other cranial structures, including the pain-sensitive dura mater, via meningeal nociceptors
Sudden or large changes in the mechanical, chemical, or thermal state of the tissues activates nociceptors
that transform and transmit the signal to the central nervous system (CNS) and then, via spinal nociceptors
, to the brain.
8 NSAID use is aimed at reducing the chemical inflammatory mediators that activate or sensitize peripheral nociceptors
and the related subsequent events involved in pain perception.
These changes promote a threshold reduction and amplify the response of nociceptors
that innervate the damaged tissue (Loeser and Treede, 2008; Woolf, 2010).
Noxious stimuli are detected at the molecular level by specific pain sensory receptors embedded in our tissues called nociceptors
Many interesting studies have been published discussing the possibility of fish have nociceptors
(reflex to a noxious stimulus) (Sneddon et al.
13,14) Potentially damaging stimuli such as thermal, mechanical and chemical factors are detected by corneal polymodal nociceptors
14) In addition to the nociceptors
, cervical spine facet joints contain type I, type II and type III mechanoreceptors.
Surviving but damaged cutaneous nociceptors
in the area of pain may have abnormal spontaneous activity and be sensitized to mechanical or other stimuli3.
Nociceptive pain is the perception of stimulation of nociceptors
, which when acute, alert the body to imminent danger and inform of injury or tissue damage.
Kunzendorf s second chapter presents evidence that the most primitive sensation pain, the subjective aspect of free nerve endings or nociceptors
has a survival-promoting function.