# Emmy Noether

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## Noether, Emmy

(Amalie Emmy Noether) (ämäl`yə ĕm`ē nö`tər), 1882–1935, German mathematician, b. Erlangen, Germany, grad. Univ. of Erlangen (Ph.D. 1908). She made important contributions to the development of abstract algebra, which studies the formal properties, e.g., associative law**associative law,**

in mathematics, law holding that for a given operation combining three quantities, two at a time, the initial pairing is arbitrary; e.g., using the operation of addition, the numbers 2, 3, and 4 may be combined (2+3)+4=5+4=9 or 2+(3+4)=2+7=9.

**.....**Click the link for more information. , commutative law

**commutative law,**

in mathematics, law holding that for a given binary operation (combining two quantities) the order of the quantities is arbitrary; e.g., in addition, the numbers 2 and 5 can be combined as 2+5=7 or as 5+2=7.

**.....**Click the link for more information. , and distributive law

**distributive law.**

In mathematics, given any two operations, symbolized by * and +, the first operation, *, is distributive over the second, +, if

*a**(

*b*+

*c*)=(

*a**

*b*)+(

*a**

*c*) for all possible choices of

*a, b,*and

*c.*

**.....**Click the link for more information. , of algebraic operations. In 1915 she joined David Hilbert

**Hilbert, David,**

1862–1943, German mathematician, professor at Königsberg (1886–95) and Göttingen (1895–1930), b. Königsberg, Germany. His proof of the theorum of invariants (1890) supplanted earlier computational work on the subject and paved the

**.....**Click the link for more information. and C. F. Klein

**Klein, Christian Felix**

, 1849–1925, German mathematician. He is noted for his work in geometry and on the theory of functions. His Erlangen program (1872) for unifying the diverse forms of geometry through the study of equivalence in transformation groups was influential,

**.....**Click the link for more information. at Göttingen Univ. at their invitation, and finally secured an official appointment there in 1919 (although without a salary until after 1922). At Göttingen, Noether developed the theories of ideals and of noncommutative algebras; she also proved two theorems concerning the connection between symmetries and conservation laws, the first of which has been particularly important to the development of modern physics. When the Nazis dismissed her and other Jewish professors in 1933, she immigrated to the United States, briefly teaching at Bryn Mawr College and at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, before she died.

## Noether, Emmy

Born Mar. 23, 1882, in Erlangen; died Apr. 14, 1935, in Bryn Mawr, USA. German mathematician.

From 1922 to 1933, Noether lectured at the University of Göttingen. Her work in algebra facilitated the creation of a new branch of mathematics known as general, or abstract, algebra (the general theory of rings, fields, and ideals); Noether’s name is associated with a fundamental theorem of theoretical physics that links conservation laws with the symmetries of a system *(see*). In 1928–29 she lectured on algebra at Moscow University.

### REFERENCES

Aleksandrov, P. S. “Pamiati Emmi Neter.”*Uspekhi matematicheskikh*

*nauk*, 1936, issue 2.

Van der Waerden, B. L. “Nachruf auf Emmy Noether.”

*Mathematische*

*Annalen*, 1935, vol. 111. (Contains a list of works by Noether.)