tamoxifen

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tamoxifen

(təmŏk`sĭfĕn'), synthetic hormone used in the treatment of breast cancerbreast cancer,
cancer that originates in the breast. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women (following lung cancer). Although the vast majority of the cases occur in women, some men also get breast cancer.
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. Introduced in 1978, tamoxifen is used to prevent recurrences of cancer in women who have already undergone surgery to remove their tumors and to control metastatic breast cancer. In breast tissue, tamoxifen blocks the effect of estrogen on cancerous cells that need estrogen to grow; not all breast cancers are affected by tamoxifen and other selective estrogen receptor modulators. In postmenopausal women with breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, which block the production of estrogen outside the ovaries, are typically used instead of tamoxifen. In 1998, a large study of healthy women at high risk for breast cancer showed that tamoxifen can also prevent first occurrence of the disease; women who took the drug had a 45% lower incidence of cancer that those who received a placebo, and tamoxifen is now also used to reduce the risk of breast cancer in high risk patients. Adverse effects include and increased risk of uterine and endometrial cancer, blood clots, stroke, and cataracts.
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The company quickly launched a direct-to-consumer advertising campaign, telling women that taking Nolvadex could reduce their risk of getting breast cancer and urging women to ask their doctors to give them a breast cancer risk assessment test.
In the first six months after approval of Nolvadex, Zeneca used three different ads for consumers, all of which have received significant criticism.
Breast cancer activists assert that Zeneca's help-seeking ad inappropriately seeks to exploit women's fear of breast cancer to sell Nolvadex.
In the past decade the regulatory authorities in US have approved five hormone-based therapies (Faslodex, Femara, Aromasin, Nolvadex and Arimidex), two chemotherapies (Xeloda and Taxotere) and one monoclonal antibody (Herceptin) as a treatment option for breast cancer.
In some NOLVADEX adjuvant studies, most of the benefit to date has been in the subgroup with four or more positive axillary nodes.
WARNING: Serious and life-threatening events associated with NOLVADEX include cancer of the uterus, stroke, and blood clots, some of which have been fatal.
Abraxane, Alimta, Arimidex, Aromasin, Avastin, BMS-217380-01, BMS-247550, CAELYX, CCI-779, Faslodex, Femara, Fenretinide, Gleevec, GTI-2040, Herceptin, Iressa, ISIS-2503, Lapatinib, Nolvadex, Sarasar, SDX-105, Tarceva, Theratope Velcade, Zarnestra, Zoladex ZD0473 and many other that are in an earlier stage of development.
ARIMIDEX and NOLVADEX were developed and are distributed by AstraZeneca , a major international healthcare business engaged in the research, development, manufacture and marketing of prescription pharmaceuticals and the supply of healthcare services.
Drugs analysed: Taxotere, Lupron, Zoladex, Casodex, Nolvadex, Faslodex, Arimidex analysis, Femara, Aromasin
In clinical trials, uterine cancers, including endometrial cancer and uterine sarcomas, and blood clots, including clots in the lungs, occurred 2 to 4 times more often with NOLVADEX than placebo, but each occurred in less than 1% of women.
Nolvadex is Tamoxifen Citrate, used in the treatment of breast cancer, which had 2002 U.