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the governor of a nome. The oldest Egyptian title for the position of nomarch was a(n)dj-mer—“he who digs canals.” As vicegerent within his nome, the nomarch headed the administrative apparatus, the court, and the local army. He was responsible for the condition of the irrigation network and supervised land surveying, the collection of taxes, the fulfillment of work obligations, and the management of temple affairs. In periods of state decentralization, the nomarchs became hereditary rulers.