primate

(redirected from Non-human primate)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms.

primate,

member of the mammalian order Primates, which includes humans, apesape,
any primate of the superfamily Hominoidea, which includes humans; this article, however, focuses on the nonhuman apes. The small apes, the gibbon and the siamang, and the orangutan, one of the great apes, are found in SE Asia.
..... Click the link for more information.
, monkeysmonkey,
any of a large and varied group of mammals of the primate order. The term monkey includes all primates that do not belong to the categories human, ape, or prosimian; however, monkeys do have certain common features.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and prosimians, or lower primates. The group can be traced to the late Cretaceous period, where members were forest dwellers. As a whole, they are arboreal, although a few species are terrestrial; nearly all inhabit warm climates. All higher primates and some prosimians display some degree of social organization.

Primates are very unspecialized anatomically, and the order is more easily described by the evolutionary trends within it, tending generally toward increased dexterity and intelligence, than by specific traits characteristic of all its members. Significant trends have been the enlargement of the braincase, elaboration of the brain and of the sensory pathways to it, flattening of the face and shifting of the eyes to a forward position, development of stereoscopic vision, and increased flexibility of the hands and feet. Nearly all primates have flat fingernails and opposable thumbs and big toes.

The prosimians ("premonkeys") are small, arboreal, mostly nocturnal animals. The most primitive, the tree-shrews, strongly resemble the insectivoresinsectivore
, term broadly given to any insect-eating animal or plant. The term also refers to mammals of the former order Insectivora, in which was included the shrew, mole, hedgehog, tenrec, and solenodon.
..... Click the link for more information.
, a primitive, unspecialized group of mammals from which primates branched at an early stage of mammalian evolution. The prosimians also include the lemurslemur
, name for prosimians, or lower primates, of two related families, found only on Madagascar and adjacent islands. Lemurs have monkeylike bodies and limbs, and most have bushy tails about as long as the body. They have pointed muzzles and large eyes.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and the aye-ayeaye-aye
, name for an aberrant primate, Daubentonia madagascariensis, related to the lemurs but distinguished by its specialized teeth and fingers. A large nocturnal and arboreal primate, it is found in dense bamboo forests in two isolated regions of Madagascar.
..... Click the link for more information.
 of Madagascar, the lorisesloris,
name for slow-moving, nocturnal, arboreal primates of the family Lorisidae, found Africa and Asia. True lorises, found in India, Sri Lanka, and SE Asia, have round heads, large round eyes, and furry bodies. They have no tails, and their index fingers are vestigial.
..... Click the link for more information.
 of Africa and Asia, the bush babiesbush baby
or bushbaby,
name for several small, active nocturnal primates of the Galagidae family, found in forested parts of Africa. Bush babies are also called galagos. The smallest are about 1 ft (30 cm) long, including the long, furry tail.
..... Click the link for more information.
 of Africa, and the tarsierstarsier
, small, nocturnal, forest-dwelling prosimian primate, genus Tarsius. There are at least three species found in the Philippines, in Sumatra and Borneo, and in Sulawesi. Tarsiers are about 6 in. (15 cm) long with a 10 in. (25 cm) hairless tail, and weigh about 4.
..... Click the link for more information.
 of SE Asia.

Monkeys are diurnal animals, generally with flatter, more expressive faces and better developed brains than the prosimians. Like prosimians, they retain the skeletal structure of quadripedal animals and usually walk or run on four feet. The New World monkeys are anatomically distinct from Old World monkeys; most have prehensile tails, and all are arboreal. The Old World monkeys, which lack prehensile tails and include some terrestrial species, are more closely related to the hominoids (apes and humans).

The apes (gibbonsgibbon,
small ape, family Hylobatidae, found in the forests of SE Asia. The gibbons are known as the small, or lesser, apes; they are the most highly adapted of the apes to arboreal life. They are highly endangered because of habitat destruction.
..... Click the link for more information.
, orangutansorangutan
, an ape of the genus Pongo, found in swampy coastal forests of Borneo and Sumatra. Highly specialized for arboreal life, orangutans usually travel by grasping branches with hands and feet and moving from tree to tree. Adult males are about 4 1-2 ft (1.
..... Click the link for more information.
, gorillasgorilla,
an ape, genus Gorilla, native to the lowland and mountain forests of western and central equatorial Africa. The two gorilla species are the western, comprising the western lowland (G. gorilla gorilla) and Cross River (G.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and chimpanzeeschimpanzee,
an ape, genus Pan, of the equatorial forests of central and W Africa. The common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, lives N of the Congo River. Full-grown animals of this species are up to 5 ft (1.
..... Click the link for more information.
) are characterized by modification of the upper skeleton for brachiation (arm swinging) and by high intelligence. Tool use and limited toolmaking are found among apes. Humans, of which Homo sapiens is the only living species, have a pelvic structure adapted to upright posture and is characterized by the use of language and by a highly developed ability to manipulate the environment (see human evolutionhuman evolution,
theory of the origins of the human species, Homo sapiens. Modern understanding of human origins is derived largely from the findings of paleontology, anthropology, and genetics, and involves the process of natural selection (see Darwinism).
..... Click the link for more information.
).

Primate

 

in the Catholic and Anglican churches, the title of the chief bishops of a given country. For example, in France the archbishop of Rouen is the primate of Normandy and the archbishop of Bordeaux is the primate of Aquitaine. In Great Britain the archbishop of Canterbury is the primate of Great Britain and the archbishop of York is the primate of England.

primate

1
any placental mammal of the order Primates, typically having flexible hands and feet with opposable first digits, good eyesight, and, in the higher apes, a highly developed brain: includes lemurs, lorises, monkeys, apes, and man

primate

2
1. another name for archbishop
2. Primate of all England the Archbishop of Canterbury
3. Primate of England the Archbishop of York
References in periodicals archive ?
We are very encouraged by the significance of these findings, including data in non-human primates, which continue to validate PCSK9 as an attractive target for a systemic RNAi therapeutic approach given its ability to achieve acute and durable reductions in LDL cholesterol," said Victor Kotelianski, M.
The non-human primates used in the study referenced above were used to help understand anthrax disease mechanisms and to assess novel approaches for the prophylactic treatment of inhalation anthrax in lieu of human efficacy testing pursuant to FDA's "Animal Efficacy Rule" (21 C.
GeoVax studies in non-human primates clearly show this Ab correlates with protection.
the Commission to propose an end to all non-human primate experiments in the revision process of Directive 86/609 EC on the use of animals in scientific procedures, specifically: to prohibit chimpanzee experiments and the use of wild-caught primates in the EU and phase out all non-human primate experiments in the EU over the next 6 years.
We know from previous studies in non-human primates that CD8 T cells played a crucial role in protecting animals that had been vaccinated with this NIAID/GSK vaccine and then exposed to otherwise lethal amounts of Ebola virus," said Julie E.
Mice, non-human primates, dogs and frogs have all been subjected to testing and the results are drugs that help fight diabetes, high blood pressure, various other antibiotics and advancement in Aids, hepatitis and cancer research.
Earlier preclinical studies were published in the medical journal The Lancet and demonstrated that when siRNA targeting the Ebola virus and delivered by Tekmira's LNP technology were used to treat previously infected non-human primates, the result was 100 percent protection from an otherwise lethal dose of Zaire Ebola virus (Geisbert et al.
The Canadian Transportation Agency has found that Air Canada's proposed tariff revisions to stop transporting non-human primates for research are not unreasonable or discriminatory, the agency said.
The Japanese macaques - the most northerly non-human primates - rolled up balls of snow but stopped short of chucking them at each other.
But the overall conclusion was that research on non-human primates was largely beneficial and should be allowed to continue.
Among them are the BAFF receptor regulation of peripheral B-lymphocyte survival and development, the role of BAFF and APRIL in antibody production and diversification, TACI signaling and its role in immunity, systemic immune-based rheumatic diseases, translating BAFF inhibition from the mouse to non-human primates and humans, and the role of BLyS in B-cell malignancies.
Sadly, Directive 86/609 offers no chance of a total ban on the use of all animals but it does present an opportunity to end the use of non-human primates.

Full browser ?