Nonequilibrium Process

Nonequilibrium Process

 

in thermodynamics and statistical physics, a physical process in which a nonequilibrium state exists. Examples of nonequilibrium processes are (1) a process in which (thermodynamic or statistical) equilibrium is established in a system that was previously in a nonequilibrium state and (2) the transition of a system from an equilibrium state into a nonequilibrium state or from one nonequilibrium state into another under the influence of external perturbations. In open systems, nonequilibrium processes may occur as steady-state processes (processes in which the physical state of the system remains constant), for example, heat transfer by heat conduction at a constant temperature difference. Nonequilibrium processes are always irreversible processes, and such processes lead to an increase in entropy.

References in periodicals archive ?
As it is evident from Figures 4 and 5, the DSC traces for both HaH isoforms were strongly dependent on the scan rate, which prompted us to analyze this nonequilibrium process based on the simplest model of irreversible thermal denaturation of proteins (1).
Friction and wear is a thermodynamically nonequilibrium process. The drastic variations of temperature may cause phase transitions of metal in the near surface region and further affect the tribological behavior.
The film growth on thermal annealing is a nonequilibrium process in which fractal pattern can be formed.
Other subjects discussed include topological origins of the coupling constants hierarchy, semiclassical dynamics of black holes, black hole evaporation as a nonequilibrium process, and the dynamics of anisotropic universes.
Self-organization in complex adaptive systems unfolds, not as some equilibrium-disequilibrium-equilibrium sequence but as a coherent nonequilibrium process with varying structural stability properties.
They could combine determinate micro-level behavior and complex, unpredictable aggregate behavior, producing evolving systems showing large-scale structural stability (punctuated by changes).(87) On the opposite end of the political spectrum, writers in the Austrian tradition have pointed out how deterministic chaos ideas can model their understanding of competition as an inherently creative, destabilizing, nonequilibrium process.(88)
organized thanks to temporal, irreversible, nonequilibrium processes. No
In summary, it is taken for granted that the minimal Standard Model is unable to explain the baryon asymmetry of the universe, since electroweak phase transition in the early universe appeared to be of second order (without nonequilibrium processes) and the CP-violation parameter from the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is too small.
This condition has been discovered in the earlier studies of nonequilibrium processes in fluids [4, 5].
Obviously, the internal cavitation zone (non-uniform and non-stationary) content produces a significant impact on the nature of flow shell transverse vibrations arising, as several proper dynamic nonequilibrium processes can occur inside of such cavitation zone.
Ecosystems are dynamic, and ecological sciences increasingly recognize nonequilibrium processes rather than linear, cyclical, or climax models of change." In order to continue influencing human behavior and affecting environmental conditions, conservation easements must have mechanisms that allow conservation-oriented adaptation over time.