Nonequilibrium State

Nonequilibrium State

 

in thermodynamics, the state of a system that has been removed from thermodynamic equilibrium; in statistical physics, the state of a system that has been removed from statistical equilibrium. In a system that is in a nonequilibrium state, there occur irreversible processes that tend to return the system to a state of thermodynamic (or statistical) equilibrium if there are no impeding factors, such as the removal (or addition) of energy or matter from (or to) the system. Otherwise, a steady (constant in time) nonequilibrium state is possible. Nonequilibrium states are studied in the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes and in the statistical theory of nonequilibrium processes.

References in periodicals archive ?
Physical aging and degradation of polymeric material is a continuous process in which the material gradually evolves from the nonequilibrium state to the equilibrium one.
In this model, there is no place for a charge as a specific matter, it only manifests the degree of the nonequilibrium state of physical vacuum; it is proportional to the momentum of physical vacuum in its motion along the contour of the vortical current tube.
the nonequilibrium state between the atmosphere/solution, the coating, and the substrate.
When the applied driving fields are removed, some polymers and some spin systems have relaxation times of seconds to hours until they decay from a nonequilibrium state to an equilibrium state.
Most Cu release investigations have been focused on the study of equilibrium conditions using thermodynamic approach which can predict only the final state of a soil system from an initial nonequilibrium state.
Thermodynamic and Oscillations are maintained in the chemical nonequilibrium nonequilibrium state of the dissipative structure 11.
In a nonequilibrium state the rate of entropy generation increases by the square of temperature as you depart from the equilibrium temperature.
In this model the electric charge is not a special kind of matter: the electric charge only manifests the degree of the nonequilibrium state of physical vacuum; it is proportional to the momentum of physical vacuum in its motion along the contour of the vortical current tube.
Nonequilibrium State of Stars and Dichotomous Formation of Planetary Systems.
The nonequilibrium state produced by the fast cooling introduces more free volume into the polymer than that available in the equilibrium state at the same temperature.
This process involves the relaxation of residual stresses (enthalpy relaxation) because of the immobilized polymer chains in a thermodynamic nonequilibrium state (37), (39), (40).
The dynamic surface tension measurement under nonequilibrium state like in practical polymer processing has not been reported yet.