When the forward bias voltage is set between P region and N region, the original balance between carrier diffusion motion and drift motion is broken, and the PIN device is under nonequilibrium state
. Because the doping concentration of the I region is very small, the resistance is very large.
Particularly, grain boundaries at nonequilibrium state
are regarded as having extrinsic grain boundaries dislocations and may exert a long-range stress field .
When particles are close to each other, one particle's induced electrostatic potential will distort its neighbor's electric field and make it nonuniform, and then the DEP force acting on its neighbor comes to a nonequilibrium state
. The nonzero DEP forces on particles influencing each other suspended in a two-dimensional DC uniform electric field can be calculated by the IDM method.
it was a serious mistake to believe that the state of equilibrium could be computed, by means of mathematical operations, on the basis of the knowledge of conditions in a nonequilibrium state
. It was no less erroneous to believe that such a knowledge of the conditions under a hypothetical state of equilibrium could be of any use for acting man in his search for the best possible solution of the problems with which he is faced in his daily choices and activities.
Physical aging and degradation of polymeric material is a continuous process in which the material gradually evolves from the nonequilibrium state
to the equilibrium one.
Our model implies, but does not explicitly account for, the underlying physical processes that maintain the nonequilibrium state
. Thus, at present, the model itself must be considered phenomenological in the sense we have no explicit link to any specific theory of nonequilibrium processes.
According to Figure 5, the star starts moving from its nonequilibrium state
with the maximum and minimum radii of 0.9 and 0.3, respectively, and its radii converge to the radius 0.63 of a circle, which corresponds to the equilibrium state of the boundary.
In fact, the Tsallis distribution describes the final-state transverse momentum spectra by using two main parameters, a temperature T and a nonequilibrium degree (or an entropic index) q, where q > 1 and q = 1 mean a nonequilibrium state
and an equilibrium state, respectively [13-22].
In this model the electric charge is not a special kind of matter: the electric charge only manifests the degree of the nonequilibrium state
of physical vacuum; it is proportional to the momentum of physical vacuum in its motion along the contour of the vortical current tube.
When the applied driving fields are removed, some polymers and some spin systems have relaxation times of seconds to hours until they decay from a nonequilibrium state
to an equilibrium state.
Thermodynamic and Oscillations are maintained in the chemical nonequilibrium nonequilibrium state
of the dissipative structure 11.
In a nonequilibrium state
the rate of entropy generation increases by the square of temperature as you depart from the equilibrium temperature.