human rights

(redirected from Nongovernment Organizations)
Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Legal.

human rights,

universal rights held to belong to individuals by virtue of their being human, encompassing civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights and freedoms, and based on the notion of personal human dignity and worth. Conceptually derived from the theory of natural lawnatural law,
theory that some laws are basic and fundamental to human nature and are discoverable by human reason without reference to specific legislative enactments or judicial decisions.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and originating in Greco-Roman doctrines, the idea of human rights appears in some early Christian writers' works and is reflected in the Magna CartaMagna Carta
or Magna Charta
[Lat., = great charter], the most famous document of British constitutional history, issued by King John at Runnymede under compulsion from the barons and the church in June, 1215.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1215). The concept winds as a philosophical thread through 17th- and 18th-century European and American thought, including the Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence,
full and formal declaration adopted July 4, 1776, by representatives of the Thirteen Colonies in North America announcing the separation of those colonies from Great Britain and making them into the United States.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1776) and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenDeclaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen,
a fundamental document of French constitutional history, drafted by Emmanuel Sieyès, adopted by the Constituent Assembly on Aug. 26, 1789, and embodied in the French constitution of 1791 as a preamble.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1789). The United Nation's Commission on Human Rights, with Eleanor RooseveltRoosevelt, Eleanor
(Anna Eleanor Roosevelt) , 1884–1962, American humanitarian, b. New York City. The daughter of Elliott Roosevelt and niece of Theodore Roosevelt, she was an active worker in social causes before she married (1905) Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a distant
..... Click the link for more information.
 as chair, created the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which reasserted the concept of human rights after the horrors of World War II. Human rights have since become a universally espoused yet widely disregarded concept.

Organizations such as Amnesty InternationalAmnesty International
(AI,) human-rights organization founded in 1961 by Englishman Peter Benenson; it campaigns internationally against the detention of prisoners of conscience, for the fair trial of political prisoners, to abolish the death penalty and torture of prisoners,
..... Click the link for more information.
 and Human Rights Watch promote human rights and denounce human-rights abuses. In addition, such abuses around the world are monitored and documented by independent investigators ("special rapporteurs") appointed by the UN Human Rights Council, which, in turn, rebukes cited nations for their human-rights failures. (The council replaced the UN Human Rights Commission, which had been accused of protecting human-rights violators, in mid-2006; similar accusations have been leveled at the new council.) In Europe, the supranational European Court of Human Rights, established under the Council of EuropeCouncil of Europe,
international organization founded in 1949 to promote greater unity within Europe and to safeguard its political and cultural heritage by promoting human rights and democracy. The council is headquartered in Strasbourg, France.
..... Click the link for more information.
, is intended to protect individual human rights from government abuse.

The charging in 1998 by a Spanish court of former Chilean president Augusto PinochetPinochet Ugarte, Augusto
, 1915–2006, president and dictator of Chile (1973–90). An army general who served as chief of staff (1972–73) and commander of the army (1973), he led the coup that overthrew socialist president Salvador Allende (Sept., 1973).
..... Click the link for more information.
 with human-rights violations and the 1999 British ruling that he could be extradited to Spain, as well as the indictment and arrest (2000) in Senegal of former Chadian president Hissène Habré for human-rights violations during his presidency (although charges were later dropped, he was subsequently rearrested on a Belgian warrant), were regarded as small steps forward in the international protection of human rights.

See also civil rightscivil rights,
rights that a nation's inhabitants enjoy by law. The term is broader than "political rights," which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike "natural rights," civil rights have a legal as well as a
..... Click the link for more information.
; feminismfeminism,
movement for the political, social, and educational equality of women with men; the movement has occurred mainly in Europe and the United States. It has its roots in the humanism of the 18th cent. and in the Industrial Revolution.
..... Click the link for more information.
; gay-rights movementgay-rights movement,
organized efforts to end the criminalization of homosexuality and protect the civil rights of homosexuals. While there was some organized activity on behalf of the rights of homosexuals from the mid-19th through the first half of the 20th cent.
..... Click the link for more information.
; war crimeswar crimes,
in international law, violations of the laws of war (see war, laws of). Those accused have been tried by their own military and civilian courts, by those of their enemy, and by expressly established international tribunals.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Bibliography

See M. A. Glendon, A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (2001); A. Fagan, The Atlas of Human Rights (2010); S. Moyn, The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (2010); A. Neier, The International Human Rights Movement (2012).

human rights

see CIVIL RIGHTS.
References in periodicals archive ?
The project will raise funds for nongovernment organizations working to prevent the spread of AIDS and assist people who have the disease.
Not more than a mile from the White House, about 200 academic and government scientists, industry representatives, and members of nongovernment organizations offered their views last week about what was important in air quality, biediversity, global change, resource use, natural disaster reduction, water resources, marine and coastal environments, risk assessment, toxic substances, and other issues.
According to Drucker, government should not do what nongovernment organizations can do as well or better.
Luistro said the guidelines were designed to help the personnel of the Department of Education (DepEd) follow a procedure in building partnerships with the private sector, nongovernment organizations, and other government agencies that will aid in the full implementation of the K to 12 Program.
In an interview with The Register-Guard, Katherine Hempstead, who directs the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's work on health insurance coverage, said an increasing number of states have contracted Medicaid management to nongovernment organizations, including for-profits, over the past decade.
He said that as long as union leaders continued to engage in compromises bred by personal interests and selfserving affiliations with international nongovernment organizations, the rights of workers would continue to be trampled upon.
In support of these goals, BD leaders work in collaboration with governments, international agencies, nongovernment organizations, funding organizations and foundations.
It is used as a reference by United Nations agencies, industry and nongovernment organizations.
Activities will be coordinated closely with central and state government agencies, women's groups, nongovernment organizations and other development institutions.
The key would be to create opportunities for public and private partnerships through local citizen groups, nongovernment organizations, educational institutions, government and international organizations, as well as visitor-exchange programs for students, scholars, teachers and ordinary citizens.
In 17 chapters, attorneys describe their work as judges and professors, corporate and independent practitioners, partners in large and small firms, and employees of government and nongovernment organizations in different countries around the world.