The four key components of a trusted digital certificate system are confidentiality, authentication, integrity, and nonrepudiation
, or CAIN.
"Blockchain has the potential to offer several benefits, including nonrepudiation
of transaction data, cost savings through disintermediation and a verifiable chain of custody," says Harsh Jadhav, CPA, CISA, CITP, CISM, CRISC, CFE and chief audit executive at the Alameda County Employees Retirement Association.
This also highlights the nonrepudiation
feature of blockchain.
The current secure communication systems support authentication, data integrity, and nonrepudiation
. But, the communication systems users and providers can need different security properties that are out of basic security properties.
According to Department of Defense Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Program (DIACAP) Information Assurance is defined as "measures that protect and defend information and information systems by ensuring their availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and nonrepudiation
. This includes providing for restoration of information systems by incorporating protection, detection, and reaction capabilities."  Information Assurance Handbook has the following definition; "Information Assurance is the overarching approach for identifying, understanding, and managing risk through an organization's use of information and information systems." .
: The signer authenticates and signs the user through a hash keychain, which is the irrelevance of the hash, which is the only private key that is known only to the user.
In addition, other security requirements are authentication, data check, and nonrepudiation
proposed a CL-AS scheme for secure communication in HWSN , which is claimed to be able to achieve the message authentication and integrity audit functions while also achieving nonrepudiation
According to DoD Instruction (DoDI) 8500.01 (Cybersecurity), it is the "Prevention of damage to, protection of, and restoration of computers, electronic communications systems, electronic communication services, wire communication, and electronic communication, including information contained therein, to ensure its availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and nonrepudiation
." A 2015 RAND Corporation report on Air Force cybersecurity referenced DoDI 8500.01 definition above, adding that cybersecurity is "limiting adversary intelligence exploitation to an acceptable level and ensuring an acceptable level of operational functionality (survivability) even when attacked offensively through cyberspace." Cybersecurity should not be viewed as an end state.
Onieva, "Multiparty Nonrepudiation
: A Survey", ACM Computing Surveys, Vol.
Transmit Security, the programmable authentication company, has been chosen by First International Bank of Israel (FIBI) to meet regulatory mandates that require the implementation of risk-based multi-factor authentication and nonrepudiation
, the company said.
Authentication and Nonrepudiation
. Each participating vehicle [C.sub.v] must authenticate to the Cloud Platform to upload the reporting video, and it cannot repudiate later the execution of video uploading process.