Norfolk Island


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Norfolk Island

(nôr`fək), island (2016 pop. 1,748), 13 sq mi (34 sq km), South Pacific, a territory of Australia, c.1,035 mi (1,670 km) NE of Sydney. Its capital is KingstonKingston,
town, capital of the Australian territory of Norfolk Island, located on the island's S coast, on Emily Bay. Kingston is the administrative and historic center of Norfolk Island; its commercial center is nearby Burnt Pine. Tourism is the mainstay of the local economy.
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. Now a resort, Norfolk has luxuriant vegetation and is known for its "pine" trees, which are not true pines but evergreens of the araucaria family (see monkey-puzzle treemonkey-puzzle tree,
evergreen tree (Araucaria araucana) native to Chile and widely cultivated elsewhere as an ornamental. The symmetrical branches have an unusual angularity and are completely covered by the stiff, overlapping leaves.
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).

Explored in 1774 by Capt. James CookCook, James,
1728–79, English explorer and navigator. The son of a Yorkshire agricultural laborer, he had little formal education. After an apprenticeship to a firm of shipowners at Whitby, he joined (1755) the royal navy and surveyed the St.
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, the then-uninhabited island (there had been an earlier Polynesian settlement) was claimed by Great Britain in the hope that the trees would provide masts for the navy. When the wood proved unsatisfactory, Norfolk was made into a prison island (1788–1855). In 1856 the prisoners were removed and some of the descendants of the Bounty mutineers were moved to Norfolk from Pitcairn IslandPitcairn Island,
volcanic island (2005 est. pop. 45), 2.5 sq mi (6.5 sq km), South Pacific, SE of Tuamotu Archipelago. Adamstown is the capital and only settlement. The first British Pacific Islands possession (1838), the island is officially administered by a governor (the
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. There are also Australians, New Zealanders, and Polynesians living on the island. Most of the people belong to the Anglican, Roman Catholic, or other Christian churches. English is the official language, but Norfolk, a mixture of 18th cent. English and ancient Tahitian, is also spoken. Many of the old prison colony buildings have been restored and contribute to the island's main industry, tourism. Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm seeds and avocados are exported. There are natural gas deposits south of the island.

Norfolk Island was annexed to Tasmania in 1844, became a dependency of New South Wales in 1896, and was transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia in 1913. The island was governed under the Norfolk Island Act of 1979, which granted limited self-rule to the territory, established a legislative assembly, and gave the island federal- and state-level powers. Financial problems led to Australian legislation in 2015 ending the island's autonomy and reducing it to local administrative status in 2016, treating the territory administratively as part of New South Wales.

Bibliography

See study by M. Hoare (1971).

Norfolk Island

an island in the S Pacific, between New Caledonia and N New Zealand: an Australian external territory; discovered by Captain Cook in 1774; a penal settlement in early years. Pop.: 2601 (2001). Area: 36 sq. km (14 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
For those who are interested in Norfolk Island as a site of language contact, these are the chapters that offer the most relevant data.
With the new Australian services the carrier said it will be flying to Norfolk Island five times a week on Mondays, Tuesdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays from Australia or New Zealand.
The revival discussed in the previous paragraph was also parallel to the rise of outside musical genres in Norfolk Island, and Hayward provides many examples of the influences coming from the United States, Australia and New Zealand.
He was sent to Norfolk Island in 1792 where he seems to have worked on a land grant.
On his arrival Anderson presented letters of introduction to Governor Sir Richard Bourke who offered him the post of Commandant at Norfolk Island to replace Lieutenant Colonel James Morisset who had been suffering ill-health for some time, and who had left all responsibility for dealing with the convict mutiny of 1834 to Captain Foster Fyans, in charge of the garrison detachment of the 4th Regiment.
In a curious coincidence, the other place whose history is tied up in the story of those mutineers, Norfolk Island, has recently been torn apart by the only two murders in its 148-year post-penal history.
For the most recalcitrant offenders there was the prospect of a second transportation, this time across the Pacific to Norfolk Island, a tiny piece of land 1,000 miles off the Austrialian coast.
The recent closure by the Commonwealth Government of a private university (Greenwich University, which was set up in Norfolk Island in 1998) raises important questions relating to governmental control over universities.
No, but was born on Norfolk Island which is off the coast of Australia, and that was like a type of Alcatraz where all the super gnarly convicts got sent from England.
ON an extraordinary weekend, when the high-flying Scots failed to qualify for the quarterfinals of the men's fours, and lost to Norfolk Island in the women's fours, Welsh bowlers stamped their authority in both events at Heaton Park.
Maconochie's Gentlemen: The Story of Norfolk Island and the Roots of Modern Prison Reform, by Norval Morris, Oxford University Press, 2002, 213 pp.
Maconochie was now appointed Governor of Norfolk Island to allow him to try out his ideas.

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