Norfolk Island


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Norfolk Island

(nôr`fək), island (2005 est. pop. 1,800), 13 sq mi (34 sq km), South Pacific, a territory of Australia, c.1,035 mi (1,670 km) NE of Sydney. Its capital is KingstonKingston,
village, capital of the Australian territory of Norfolk Island, located on the island's S coast, on Emily Bay. Kingston is the administrative and historic center of Norfolk Island; its commercial center is nearby Burnt Pine. Tourism is the mainstay of the local economy.
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. Now a resort, Norfolk has luxuriant vegetation and is known for its "pine" trees, which are not true pines but evergreens of the araucaria family (see monkey-puzzle treemonkey-puzzle tree,
evergreen tree (Araucaria araucana) native to Chile and widely cultivated elsewhere as an ornamental. The symmetrical branches have an unusual angularity and are completely covered by the stiff, overlapping leaves.
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).

Explored in 1774 by Capt. James CookCook, James,
1728–79, English explorer and navigator. The son of a Yorkshire agricultural laborer, he had little formal education. After an apprenticeship to a firm of shipowners at Whitby, he joined (1755) the royal navy and surveyed the St.
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, the then-uninhabited island (there had been an earlier Polynesian settlement) was claimed by Great Britain in the hope that the trees would provide masts for the navy. When the wood proved unsatisfactory, Norfolk was made into a prison island (1788–1855). In 1856 the prisoners were removed and some of the descendants of the Bounty mutineers were moved to Norfolk from Pitcairn IslandPitcairn Island,
volcanic island (2005 est. pop. 45), 2.5 sq mi (6.5 sq km), South Pacific, SE of Tuamotu Archipelago. Adamstown is the capital and only settlement. The first British Pacific Islands possession (1838), the island is officially administered by a governor (the
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. There are also Australians, New Zealanders, and Polynesians living on the island. Most of the people belong to the Anglican, Roman Catholic, or other Christian churches. English is the official language, but Norfolk, a mixture of 18th cent. English and ancient Tahitian, is also spoken. Many of the old prison colony buildings have been restored and contribute to the island's main industry, tourism. Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm seeds and avocados are exported. There are natural gas deposits south of the island.

Norfolk Island was annexed to Tasmania in 1844, became a dependency of New South Wales in 1896, and was transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia in 1913. The island was governed under the Norfolk Island Act of 1979, which granted limited self-rule to the territory, established a legislative assembly, and gave the island federal- and state-level powers. Financial problems led to Australian legislation in 2015 ending the island's autonomy and reducing it to local administrative status in 2016, treating the territory administratively as part of New South Wales.

Bibliography

See study by M. Hoare (1971).

Norfolk Island

an island in the S Pacific, between New Caledonia and N New Zealand: an Australian external territory; discovered by Captain Cook in 1774; a penal settlement in early years. Pop.: 2601 (2001). Area: 36 sq. km (14 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition to looking at music on Norfolk Island that is influenced by outside music, Hayward also speaks of how the island's language and heritage is found in song; it is done through a context of musicians identifying with being a descendant of settlers of Pitcairn Island.
He was sent to Norfolk Island in 1792 where he seems to have worked on a land grant.
These show that the Chathams and Kermadecs were settled directly from New Zealand, while Norfolk Island was settled from New Zealand via the Kermadecs.
The transfer of the mission headquarters to Norfolk Island in 1867 was undertaken in order to reduce the distance between the Melanesian islands and the mission base, as well as to escape the colder Auckland climate.
The recent closure by the Commonwealth Government of a private university (Greenwich University, which was set up in Norfolk Island in 1998) raises important questions relating to governmental control over universities.
The engraving was included as an illustration to King's journal, published in An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island .
No, but was born on Norfolk Island which is off the coast of Australia, and that was like a type of Alcatraz where all the super gnarly convicts got sent from England.
Maconochie's Gentlemen: The Story of Norfolk Island and the Roots of Modern Prison Reform, by Norval Morris, Oxford University Press, 2002, 213 pp.
Maconochie was now appointed Governor of Norfolk Island to allow him to try out his ideas.
Early on in the programme for the centre, the indigenous bush was supplemented with transplanted Norfolk Island pines, those wonderful, stiff architectural trees which so gracefully articulate the sky-lines of the islands of the south-western Pacific.
According to Hill, the tree's nearest living relatives are the Hoop, Bunya, and Norfolk Island pines; however, it is most closely related to extinct pines that dominated the ancient Jurassic super-continent, Gondwana, which later split into Africa, South America, Australia, and India.

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